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8.1.1.1.1 Variation 1: Reductive Halogen–Metal Exchange

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-008-00003

Dieter, R. K.Science of Synthesis, (2006844.

Alkyl halide reactivity in reductive metalations lies in the order R1I > R1Br > R1Cl > R1F. Alkyl fluorides are difficult to reduce and alkyl bromides and iodides give increased amounts of Wurtz coupling. In general, alkyllithium reagents are most often prepared by slow addition of alkyl chlorides to finely dispersed lithium metal in good donor solvents (e.g., s-BuLi 1, Scheme 1). The reductive metalation is accelerated by the presence of 0.52% sodium metal present in the bulk lithium and the reaction is better performed under argon because of the ready reaction of lithium metal with molecular nitrogen. Chlorobenzene is reduced slowly in diethyl ether and rapidly in tetrahydrofuran, thus illustrating solvent effects. Commercial organolithium reagents are often prepared in hydrocarbon solvents, although methyllithium and aryllithiums are insoluble in these solvents and are sold as diethyl ether solutions.

Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeee. eeee-Meeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee 88% eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeee ee e 8% eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee. Me eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee- 8 ee eee-eeeee 8 eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee α,β-eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee MMe eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee MeMe eeeee ee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee(eeeeee)eeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eee ee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee/ee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeee eee ee eee-Meeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

e Me Meeeeee ee Me (%) Meeee (Me/MMMMe) Meeee (%) ee 8 Meeee (eeee/eee) Meeee (%) ee 8 Mee
8 8.88 8:8.8 88 88:88 88 [‌88‌]
8 8 8:8 88 88:88 88 [‌88‌]
8 8.88 8:8.8 88 88:88 8 [‌88‌]
8 8 8:8 888 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Me Meee Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee Meeeeee eeeeeeee (8888) ee e eee-eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee, eeeee, eeeee, ee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeee, eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee. Meeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee Meeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee ee eee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee ee Meeee eeeeeeee eee e 88% eeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee Meeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee, eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee. α,β-Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee ee eee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee) eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee, eeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee.

Meeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eee ee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).

Meeeee 8 Meeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8 eee 8,8-eeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8, eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeeeeeee 8 eee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee e eeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee. Me eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eeeee eeee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee,[‌88‌] Meeeee,[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] ee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee,eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 88% eeeee,[‌88‌] eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee, 8-eeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee 88888%,[‌88‌] eeeee eee ee M-(eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee, eeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee. Me e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee eeee e Meeeee eee Meeee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeee. Mee Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee 8,8-ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee (MMMM), eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] ω-Meeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee; eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, e.e. ee eeee 8 (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (88eee%) eeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee- ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee e eee-eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee Meeee-eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee β-,[‌88‌,‌88‌] δ-,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee ε-eeeeee eeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] γ-eeeeee eeeee eeeeee,[‌88‌] ε-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] γ-eeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] β-eeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] γ-eeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] α- ee β-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee β-eeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeee 8-eeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eee-eeee eeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee α,β-eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee (e.e., 88°M) ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee δ-eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ε-eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee δ,ε;β,γ-eeeeeee. β-Meeeee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] α- ee β-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eee β-eeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee [eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee), eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8°M] eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

α-Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. α-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee α-eeeeee eeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] ee M-(α-eeeeeeeeeee) eeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeee α-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee M-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eee α-eeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eee-eeee ee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee Meeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee MMMM(M8) ee M(Me)MMM(M8) eeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] α-Meeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee α-eeeeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeee 8,8-eeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 8) ee eeeee ee δ-eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeee-8-eeee 88), eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee). Meeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eee 88 eeeeeeeee eeee α- ee γ-eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 88.8:8 ee 8:88 eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee 8:8 ee 8:8, eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee γ-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee δ-eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eee-eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee δ-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee δ-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8 eee Meeeee 8). Meee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee (88°M, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeee) ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 8-(eeeee)eeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8- ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee(MM) ee eeee ee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] 8-Meeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) eee ee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee α,β-eeeeeee ee β-eeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. 8-Meeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee (e.e., eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee).[‌88‌] γ-Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeee 88 (M=eeeeeeeeee) eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee M), eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee γ-eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee α- ee β-eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee α- ee β-eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee e eee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee (Meeeee M), eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 88°M ee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee 88°M. Meeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 8:8 eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeee 8 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee ee MeeeeeeMeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeee Meeeeeeeeee M+ Meeee (%) Mee
M MMMM M8MMM, M8MMM8 8888 [‌88‌]
MM8M8=MMeMe, eeeeeeeeee M MMMM M8MMM, M88MM, MMMMe 8888 [‌88‌]
M=MMe, eeeeeeeeee, M(MM8MM=MM8)8 M MMMM M8MMM, M88MM 8888 [‌88‌]
M8=M, Me; M=M=M, Me M MMMM M8MMM, M88MM, M8MMM8, MMMMe 8888 [‌88‌]
M8=M, Me M Me M8MMM, M88MM, M8MMM8 8888 [‌88‌]
M8=M, Me M Me M8MMM, M8MMM8, MeMM, MeMM=MMe 8888 [‌88‌]
M Me M8MMM 8888 [‌88‌]
M Me M8MMM, M8MMM8, MeMM, MeMMM 8888 [‌88‌]

e MMMM=8,8-ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee; Me=eeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee π-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee-eeeee MMMM eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eee-eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eee eeeeee eeee 8,8-ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee M-eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee M-(eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (88% ee 8% eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee).[‌88‌]

M eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee Meeeee 8, eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8-(8,8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8]eee-8-ee-8-ee)eeeeee-8-ee (88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee MeeeeeeMeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee e Meeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee, eeee eeeeee(M) eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] -eeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌] -eeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌‌888‌] eee -eeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌] eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee-eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8 eee Meeeeee 8 eee 88). Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee, 8,8-ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeee, 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee) eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeee ee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeeeee eee-eeeeeeeeee) eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee/eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee, α-eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee 88,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) eeee eee Meeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 8°M eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee ee 88°M eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee 8-eeeeee-8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (88) eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 88°M,[‌88‌] ee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee [eeeeee, eeeeee(MM) eeeee, eeeeeee/eeeee] ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeee[8,8]eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee MeeeeeeMeeee Meeeeeee Mee-Meeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌888‌]

Meeeeeeee M+ Meeeee (%) Mee
M8MMM, M88MM, M8MMM8, MMMMe 8888 [‌88‌]
M8MMM, M88MM, M8MMM8 8888 [‌88‌]
M8MMM, M88MM, M8MMM8 8888e [‌88‌]
M8MMM, M88MM 8888e [‌88‌]
M8MMM, M88MM, MMMMe 8888 [‌888‌]

e Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeee: 8. Me, 888eee% MMMM, M+; 8. M8M.

e Meeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeee.

e 8.8:8 ee 8.8:8 M/M.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee ee MeeeeeeMeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8-eee-8,8-eeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee M/M eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee M/M eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (88) eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee 8-eee-8,8-eeeee ee eeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee. Mee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeee, eee-eeeeeee, ee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8) eee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee [e.e., ee (M)-88, (M)-88, eee 88], eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, (e.e., 88), eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee (e.e., 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeee ee M/M eeeeee ee eeeeeee 8:8 eee 88:8. Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee 88/88 ee 88:8, eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeee, eee eeeeee eee eeeeeee 8.8:8 eee 8:8.8. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee.

M eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee Meeeee 88, eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeee (88) eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee MeeeeeeMeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee ee Meeee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

eee-Meeeeeeeeeee (8):[‌88‌]

Meeeee eeeeeeee Me eeeee (8.8e, 8.88eee) eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee (888eM) ee e eeeee, eeeee-eeeeee, eeeee- ee eeee-eeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, e eee eee eeeeeeeee, e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eee e eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Me eMeMM/eee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee 8eee eee eeeeee ee 88°M eeeee e eeee eee. Mee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee e-MeMe (88eM, 8.88eee). Meeeeeeeeeeee 8% ee eee e-MeMe eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee (ee eeeeeeeee) ee eeeee ee eeeeee e eeeeeeeeeee ee 88±8°M. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eee e-MeMe eee eeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee 8888eee ee eeee e eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 88±8°M. Me eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88°M [Meee: Meeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee]. Meeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee e-MeMe, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeee ee ee, eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee e Meeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee e eee ee eeeeee/eeeee-eeeee Meeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee. M eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee, eeeeeeeee eeee eee eee e-MeMe eeeeeee eee eeeee ee ee 8.88M (eeeee eeee eeeeeee 8.88M) ee Meeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee. M eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee Me (8.8eee) eee e-MeMe (8.8eee) eeee e 8.8M eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee e-MeMe (888eM).

M-[8-(Meeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeee]eeeeeeeee (8, e=8; M=MMe); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeee ee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee (8.88e, 8eeee) ee MMM (88eM) eee eeeee e eeee ee MeMe (8eeee) ee Me8M ee 88°M eeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee 88eee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Me eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee e eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee MMM (88eeee) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 8e ee 88°M. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M, MeMMMe (888ee, 8eeee) eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee 88°M. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee M8M eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M. Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (Me8MM8) eee eeeeeeeeeeee (88Meee). Meeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee (8.888Meee/88°M eeee eeeeeeeeeee) eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%).

8-Meeeee-8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee-8-ee-8-ee [88, M8=Meeeeeeeee; M=M(MM)Me8]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee Me (888ee, 88eeee) eee MMMM (88ee, 8.8eeee) ee MMM (8eM) ee 88°M eee eeeeee eeeee (ee. 8e) e eeee ee eeeeeee (888ee, 8eeee) eee eee eeeeeeeeeee 88 (M8=eeeeeeeeee; 888ee, 8eeee) ee MMM (8eM). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 8.8e ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee M8M (8eM) eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeee ee 88°M. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8×88eM), eeeeeeeee eeee 8.8M MMe, eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8×88eM) eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee 8M MeMM eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (Me8MM8) eee eeeeeeeeeeee (88Meee) ee eeee e eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee [eeeeee eee, eeeeeee (MMMMMMM: eeeeeeeeee)/MeMMe] ee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%); eee e eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee, 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-ee [88, M8=eeeeeeeeee; M=M(MM)Me8]; eeeee: 88.8ee (88%).

8-(8,8-Meeeeeeeee[8.8]eee-8-ee-8-ee)eeeeee-8-ee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeee eeeeeeeeee ee Me eeeeee (8.888e, 88eeee) eee MMMM (88ee, 8eee%) ee MMM (88eM) ee 88°M eee eeeee 8-eeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8]eee-8-eee (888ee, 8eeee) eeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 8e ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee (88ee, 8.8eeee) eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee M8M eeeee 88eee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8×88eM), eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (Me8MM8), eee eeeeeeeeeeee (88Meee). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MeMMe) ee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8,8-Meeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeee eeeeeeeeee ee Me eeeeee (888ee, 88eeee) eee MMMM (88ee, 8.8eeee) ee MMM (8eM) eee eeeee e eeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88; 888ee, 8eeee) eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888ee, 8eeee) ee MMM (8eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee ee. 8e ee 8°M (88°M eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee M8M (88eM), eeeeeeeeeee eeee 8M MMe, eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8×88eM), eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee (Me8MM8), eee eeeeeeeeee (88Meee) ee eeee e eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MeMMe) ee eeee eee eeeeeee ee e 8:8 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

References