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8.4.2.A Applications of Product Subclass 2 in Organic Synthesis

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-008-01295

Kellogg, R. M.Science of Synthesis, (200681486.

There are relatively few examples of nucleophilic substitutions by halides where rubidium or cesium are the counterions (Section 8.4.2.1). In most cases, sodium, potassium, or tetraalkylammonium salts, which are equally if not more soluble, are suitable. Difficult substitutions might benefit from the use of cesium (or rubidium) as counterion, where, if necessary, a crown ether is used to increase the solubility (see also Section 8.4.3.2.3).

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