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14.1 Product Class 1: Pyrylium Salts

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-014-00002

Balaban, T. S.; Balaban, A. T.Science of Synthesis, (20031411.

General Introduction

Pyrylium cations are six-membered aromatic heterocycles with one positively charged oxygen heteroatom. Several books[‌1‌,‌2‌] and book chapters[‌3‌‌9‌] have reviewed the chemistry, physical properties, and applications of pyrylium salts. The accompanying non-nucleophilic anions are usually halides, tetrafluoroborate, perchlorate, hexafluorophosphate, hydrogensulfate, and triflate. With some anions, such as iodide or pseudohalides (SCN, SeCN, TeCN, etc.), charge-transfer interactions between the ion pairs may be observed in the electronic absorption spectra in the solid state or in nonpolar solvents. Pyrylium cations contain the strongest single electronic perturbation that can be introduced into a benzene ring, because oxygen is the most electronegative atom in the periodic table after fluorine, which cannot become an sp2-hybridized heteroatom in an aromatic ring. The perturbation of even pyridinium salts with the strongest acceptor substituents attached to the nitrogen atom that are able to ring open upon nucleophilic attack is not as strong as that in pyrylium cations. This has several consequences, and these will be discussed vide infra.

Meeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeee ee eee 8,8- eee/ee 8-eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eee eeeee eeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee, eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee M8 eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee e eeee-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee, ee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee (M,M)-8,8-eeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee ee ee MMMMMM (Meeeee ee e Meeeeeeeeee, Meee Meeeeee, Meee Meeeeee) eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeee eeeee) eeeeeeee e eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee ee, eeee eee eee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee: eeee eeeeeee (M8 eeeeeeee) eee eeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee (M8 eeeeeeee).

Me ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeee e Meeeeé eeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee, ee eeeeee, eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeee (Meeeee 8) eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee (eeee eeeeeeeeee ee α-eeeeeeeee), ee eeee ee eeee eee 8-eeeeeeee (eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee γ-eeeeeeee). MMM eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee α-eeeeeeeee eeee ee eee γ-eeeeeeee, eee eeee ee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee α-eeeeeeee. Meeee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee Meeeee

Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eee, eee eeee eeeeee eeee eeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeee (ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee) ee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee α-eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eee-8,8-eeeeee eee ee eeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee e eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meee eeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Meee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee MMMMMM eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee M-eeeee, M-(8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee), M-8-eeeeeee, M-eeeeee, M-eeeee, M-eeeeeeee, ee eeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee e MM eeeee ee eeeeeee.

Mee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeee, ee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee Meeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Mee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee: 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (eee eee eeeeeeeeee) ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee;[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌888‌] eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee Meeee eee Meeeeee) eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee;[‌888‌] eee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌] eee Meeeeee eee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌]).

M eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee, ee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeee. Mee eeeeee ee eee eeeee ee, ee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meee ee eee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee Meeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeee eeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee) eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeee ee eeeee α-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (eee-8,8-eeeeee eeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeee). Meeeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eee α-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee(eee) eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee α- ee γ-eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, ee eeeee ee Meeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee γ-eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. γ-Meeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee (ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee) eee eeeeeeee. Meee, ee 8888, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee ee eee eeeeeee eee (eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee), Meeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee γ-eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee) eeeeeee e eeeeeee eee e eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeee ee eeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, γ-eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee: eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeeeeee), eeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee 8M-8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eee (eeeee-α-eeeeeeee) eee 8M-8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eee (eeeee-γ-eeeeeeee) eee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee, eee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee). Meee eeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8) eeee eee eeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee (eee Meeeeee 88.8), eee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee (eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee).

Me eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, ee, eee eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee). Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee eee Meeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee e eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Me eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee. Mee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee ee eeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeeee (eeeeee ee eeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee) eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee.

Me eee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee eee eee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eee; eeeee, eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee.

M eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee MMMMM eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (MMMMM Meeeeeeeeeeeeee 8888, MM88.8), eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 8.

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 8 eee 8, eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeee ee α-eeeeeeeee; eee eeee eeee (8 eee 8) eeee eeeee ee β-eeeeeeeee, eee eee 8-eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee γ-eeeeeeee.

Meee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee, eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeee eee eeeeeeee eee eee eeee-, eeeeee-, eee eeeeeee-, eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee e eeeeee eeee (ee eeeee eeee eee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee), eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

M eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee ee M-eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee, eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee MM8 (8.888.88Å) < M8M8 (8.888.88Å) < M8M8 (8.888.88Å).[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee ee eeeeee; eee 8-eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee ee 88.8°, eeeeeee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee 88.8 eee 8.8° eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee. Me eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee eee α-eeeeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee 8-, 8-, eee/ee 8-eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee(e). Meee ee eeee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee eeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeeeee, eee, ee eeee eeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee (e 8M-eeeee-8-eee ee e 8M-eeeee-8-eee) ee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, ee eeeeee ee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee 8M-eeeee-8-eee ee 8.8M, eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (8.8M) eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee-8-eeeee (88M).

Mee eeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8 (Meeeee 8) eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee M-eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeee (8.888.88Å) eee M8M8 eee eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeee. Mee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee 8.888.88Å, eeeeee eee eee M8M8 eeee, eeeee ee eee eeeeeee (8.888Å). Mee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8M eee 8M, eeeeeeeee ee eee 8M-eeeee-8-eee eee 8M-eeeee-8-eeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Me eeeeee, eeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeee eeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee [M88MMM8=MMMM8=MM88]+ eeeeeee eeeeeee M8 eee M8.

Meeeee 8 Mee Mee Meee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee e 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeee-8-ee-Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

Meee Meee Meeeeee (Å)
M8M8 8.888
M8M8 8.888
M8M8 8.888
M8M8 8.888
MM8 8.888
MM8 8.888
MM8 8.888
MM8 8.888

e Meeeeeeeee ee M-eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee 88MMMM eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee 8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee) eee 88.8eeee·eee8 eee eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeee eee 88.8eeee·eee8 eee eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeee, eeeeeeeeee e eeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee eee M(MMe8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee M(MMe8) eeeee eee 88.8eeee·eee8 eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee 88.8eeee·eee8 eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeee, eeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.

Meee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 8 eee 8 eee eeeeee ee eeeee (eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee). Meee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eee ee eeee α-eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee ee ee α-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee e 8-eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee-8-eee-8,8-eeeee (e eeeeeeeeee) eeee, ee eeee eeee, ee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee (8888%) eeeeeeeeee eeee.

Me eeeeeee eeeeeeee, e eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, ee eeeeee, ee eee eM eee eee eeeeeeeeeee. Meee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 88M-eeeeeeee eeeee, eee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8. Meee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee α- ee γ-eeeeeeeee, eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeee), eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeee ee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeee γ-eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee; eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeee) eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee 8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee eee α-eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee 8-eeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eee eeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeee eeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeee ee eee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee (eee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8).

Meeee eee 8888e, eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee 8,8-eee- eee 8,8,8-eeee(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeee ee Meeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee (eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee) eee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee: (e) eeeeeeee < eeeeeeeeeeeeee < eeeeeeeeeeee;[‌88‌] (e) eeeeeeee < eeeeeeeee;[‌88‌] (e) 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee < 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee Meeeee eee Meeeeeeeee:[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee e 8-eeeeeeeeeee 8M-eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8M-eeeee eee e 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee M,M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Mee-eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee MMM eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee, eeeeeee, eeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee, ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeee.

Mee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeee. Me eeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee.

Me eee eeeee eee e eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeee ee Meeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee eee/ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8888,[‌88‌] eee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e MM eeeee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee ee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee, M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee, eee ee eeeeee eee e-eeee ee 8Me-eeee. Mee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeee eee e-eeee ee eee 8Me-eeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee MMMM eee MMMM eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee. Me e eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eee e-eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee e-eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Me e eeee ee eeeee, eee λeee eeeeee ee ee, eee eee eee ε (eeeee ee eeeeeeee) eee eee e- eee e-eeeee eee 888 (8.88) eee 888 (8.88) eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee; 888 (8.88) eee 888 (8.88) eee eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee; eee 888 (8.88) eee 888 (8.88) eee eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee eeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee γ-eeeeee eeeee ee ee eee eee α-eeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee, eeee eee e-eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee α-eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eee γ-eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee e-eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee e-eeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8,8,8-eee-(M)-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (eee Meeeee 8 eee λeee eeeeee). Me ee eee eeeee eeee (eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee), eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee ee eee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee λeee Meeeee eee Meeeeeeeeeeee, 8,8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee 8,8,8-Mee-(M)-eeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee e eeeeeee eee, eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee: Meeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeee ee 8888 eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee (eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeee eeee (eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeee).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eee Meeeeee eee ee 8888 eeeeeeeeee eeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee; eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee (8.8eeee·M8) eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 888ee.[‌88‌] M eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeee eeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeee ee M-eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (λeee eeeee 8888888ee) eee eee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (λeee eeeee 888888ee).[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeee ee eeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee) eeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee e eeee eeee eee, eee eeee ee eee 8888e eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eee Meeeeeee: eeee eeee ee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee. Me eeee eeee, eee eeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee ee eeeee eeeee e eeeeeee eeeeeeee (e.e., e eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeee M-eeeee, eeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeee) eee eee eeeeeeeee. M eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (MMM, MeMM) eeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeee eeee eee λeee ee eee eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee: M < MMM < MeMM. Meeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee, eee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8888. Mee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee. M eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee 88888888ee8 eee ee eee M8 eeee eeee (eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee (8-e8, 8-e8, 8,8,8,8,8-e8) eeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eee 8MMMM eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee α-eeeeeee (δ 8.8), eeeeeeee ee eee γ-eeeeeee (δ 8.8) eee eeee eee β-eeeeeee (δ 8.8). Meeee eeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeee ee α-eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eee 8MMMM eeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-e8.

Mee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee (α > γ > β) ee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee M-eeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee: γ-eeeeee eeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee α-eeeeee eeeeeee; eeee ee eee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee M-eeee eeee. Me e eeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee M-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee e eeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee (eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee eeee), ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee γ- eee eee α-eeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee M-eeee eeee-eeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8MMMM eeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee M-eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee 8, 8, ee 8-eeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeee, 8-eeeeeeee, eee 8-eeeeeee).[‌88‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeee MMM eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee MM8 eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee: eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee MM8 eeeee ee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee δ 8.88, eee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (eee eeee eeeeeee) ee eee eeeeeeeeee MMe+ ee MM+-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee δ 8.88.8, eee ee δ 8.88 eee eee eeeeeee MM8 eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Mee 88MMMM eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-e8 (MMM/MM8Me8 8:8) eeee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee (δ) eeee eeeee: 888.88 (α-eeeeeee), 888.88 (γ-eeeeee), eee 888.88 (β-eeeeeee). Mee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee: δ: 888.88 (α-eeeeeee), 888.88 (γ-eeeeee), eee 888.88 (β-eeeeeee). Mee eee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee: δ: γ-Me, 8888; α-Me, 8888; eee β-Me, ee. 88. Meee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee γ-Me eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee, ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8).[‌88‌] M eeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee eee eee 8MMMM eeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee α-, β-, eee γ-eeeeeeeee.

Mee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee MMM eeeeeee, eee 8,8,8-eee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee α- ee γ-eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeee eeeeee ee 88° eee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeee eeeeee eee 88° eee eee 8-eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eee 8-eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeee ee eeeee ee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeee eeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee.

Mee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee-eee eeeeeeeeee (MMMMM, MMMMM, eeeeeeeeeeee, MMM) eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee M eeee eeeeeeeee ee 8888, eeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee MM.[‌88‌] Meeeee eeeeee ee γ-eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee, eee ee α-eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeee eee ee eeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee ee Meeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eMe eeeeee (eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee MM eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, 88°M, 8.8M eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee) eee eee eMe: 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee M8M, 8.8; ee M8M, 8.8; 8-eeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8.8 (eee 8.8 eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee); eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8.8 (eee 8.8 eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee).

Mee eeeeee ee eeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee (M) eeee eeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee, eee eee-8,8-eeeee (M). Mee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee MM+=[M8M+][M]/[π], eeeee π eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Me eeeeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee. Meeeeeeee, Me=[M8M+][M]/[π]=MM+[M]/[M]

Mee eee eeeeeeee eeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eeee, eee eeee ee eee e eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeee e eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeee, eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Me eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e 8,8-eeeeeee ee eeeee ee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeee 8,8-eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeee. Meeeeee-eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee; eeee, eeeeeee-8,8-eeeeee eee ee eeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee, 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee 8,8-eeeeeee eeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeee ee MMM eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] M eeeeeee ee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeee ee e eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee e eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee ee, ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee ee eee α-eeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee MeeeeeeMeeeMeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee (88.8%) eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (88.8%), ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8M-eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee 8M-eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Me eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee), eeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeee. 8,8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (eeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeee ee eeee eee eeeee eee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee) eeee eee eM eeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] 8,8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeee e eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee) eeeeee ee eeee, eee e eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eeee ee MM88 ee eeeee 8.88e·ee8. Me eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee 888ee·ee8 ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Meee eeeeeee (eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeee ee eee[‌8‌]) eeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee ee eeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee 8. Mee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee: eeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeee (eeeeee eee ee Meeeee 8); eeee eee eeeeeeee, eeeeee [M8+M8] ee [M8+M8] (eeeeee eee); ee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee (eeeee eee ee Meeeee 8). Me eee eeee eeee, eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeee (eee eee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee), eee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eee eeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee 8,8-eeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee (eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee), ee eeeeeeeee (e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee). Me eeee eeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eee ee eee eeeeeeee; ee eeeeeee ee eeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee (eeeeeeee), eeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (e.e., eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee).

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee eee Meee-Meeeee Meeee ee Meeeeeee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee

Mee eeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeee [Meeeeeee Meeee (Meeeeee 88.8)] ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee [Meeeeeeee ee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8)], eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee 88.8.8 eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee ee Meeeee 8: eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8) eeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8), eee, eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee e eeee-eeeeee eeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8) eeee eeeeeeee Meeeeee 88.8.8. Meeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eee-eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee: eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee; eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeee ee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee.

Me eee ee eeee α-eeeeeeee(e) eee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eee. Meeeeee, eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee M. Meeeee'e eeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meüeeee (eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee; eeeee eeeee Meeeee Meeeeee), eee eeee, ee eeeeee, ee eeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeee ee 8-, 8-, eee/ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee.

Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeee, eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8) eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee), eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee; eeee ee eeee eeee eee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8), eee eeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeee-eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8).

Me eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Meee eeeee ee e 8-eeeeeeeeeee eee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, e [M8+M8+M8]-eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8), eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee; eee 8-, 8-, eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eee 8- eee 8- eee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee (eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeee eeee eeeee, eeee eeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee, eee [M8+M8+M8]-eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8) eee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee (eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeee, eee [M8+M8+M8]-eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8) eee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Mee Meeee Meeee ee Meeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee eee eee Mee Meeee ee Mee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeee

Meee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8) eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee [M8+M8]-eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e β,γ-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee) (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeee ee eee [M8+M8]-eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8) eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee: e Meeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee(eee) eeeeee ee ee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee; eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e 8,8-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee(eee) eeeeee, eee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Me eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee(eee) eeeeeee eee e 8-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeeee, eeeee eeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8) eeeeeee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8), eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeeee eee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee: eee eeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee 8M-eeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee 8M-eeeee-8-eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8). Meeeeeee, eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee α-eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeee Mee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeee: Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeee, Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee

Meee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8) ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee ee eee eeeee-, eee-, ee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee (eeee eeeee). Me e eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeee ee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eee, eee eeeeeee, ee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee α/γ-eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eee ee eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee, ee eeee e eeee, eeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8). Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeee) eeeeee eee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee. Meeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee.

M eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee-eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeee eeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeee eeeee, eeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee, ee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee, eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee e eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee.

Mee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee. Meee ee eee eeeee- ee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (eee-eeeeee eeeeeee; Meeeeeee 88.8.8.8.8 eee 88.8.8.8.8), eee eee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (ee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee), eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee (eeee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee).

Mee eee-eeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeeee 88.8.8.8.8 eee 88.8.8.8.8), eee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee(eee) eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeeee 88.8.8.8.8 eee 88.8.8.8.8) eee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeee, β-eee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeee, β-eee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee (8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee), β-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeee-8-ee-8-eeee. Mee eeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, β-eeeeeee eeeeeee, ee β-eeee eeeeeee.

Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8), eeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee-8-ee-8-eee eee eee eeeeeee eeeeee-, eeee-, ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee-, eee-, eeeee-, eee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeee:

Mee-eeeeee eeeeeeee:

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee: MM(MM8)8, M8M(MM8)8, M8MM8 (M=eeeeeee)

Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee: M8MMM, M8MM(MM8)8

Mee-eeeeee eeeeeeee (M8MMMM8M8; ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee M8=M):

M8MMMe, M8M(MM8)=MM8, M8M(MMMM8)=MM8, M8M(MMeM88)=MM8, M8MM=MM8, M8MM=MMM, M8M(MM88)=MM8, M8MMM (M=eeeeeee)

Meeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee (ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeee eee eee eeee):

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee: M8MMMM8MMM8, M8MMMMM8, M8MMMM=MMM8, M8MMMM=M(MM88)M8, M8MMMM8MMM M8MMMM=MMMM (M=eeeeeee)

Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee: M8MMMM=MMM8, M8MMMM8MM(MM)M8, M8MMMM8MMMM8 (M=eeeeeee)

Meee-eeeeee eeeeeeee:

M8MMMM8=MM8MM8M8, M8MMMMM8MM8=MMM8, M8MM8=MM8MMM8

MMMMMM: Meee eeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, ee eeee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 8, 8, eee 8, eeee ee, eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee), ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (88% eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88% eeeeeeeeee eeee) eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeee 88% eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 8eee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee 88eM eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8.8eee eeeee; eee eeee 88% eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 8eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 888eM eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8.88eee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee, 88% eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 8eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 888eM eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8.8eee eeeee. Mee 88% eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eee eee ee Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee.

References