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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-020-00532

Vanderwal, C. D.; Jacobsen, E. N.Science of Synthesis, (200720558.

There are many methods for the homologation of aldehydes and ketones to the chain-extended alk-2-enoic acids. These are mostly based on the aldol-type condensations of activated acetic acid equivalents, and make use of either a second carboxylic acid, or a phosphorus- or silicon-based activating group.