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20.5.1 Product Subclass 1: Alkyl Alkanoates

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-020-00642

Yus, M.; Nájera, C.; Chinchilla, R.Science of Synthesis, (200720643.

General Introduction

In terms of their occurrence in nature, and utility in the laboratory and in industry, esters are amongst the most important of organic compounds, and thus their preparation is one of the fundamentals of organic chemistry.[‌1‌‌11‌] In this section, the general properties of the ester functionality will be discussed, together with an overview of the different methodologies employed in the preparation of their alkyl derivatives. These methods are frequently general enough to be extendable to the preparation of all types of carboxylates. Further information may also be found in HoubenWeyl, Vol. E 5, p 656.

Meeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee (eeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee),[‌88‌] eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee, eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee 8.8 eee 8.8M eeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeee eeeeeee (8), eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeee, ee eeee ee MM8,[‌88‌] MM8, eee ee eeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eee MM eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeee eeee, eeeeeeee eee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee. Mee MMM eeeee ee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeee ee eeeeee, eeeeeee eee MM=M eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee ee eee e-eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeee eee M=M eeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeee eeeeeee (8), eee eee-eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee eeee,[‌88‌] eee MM8 ee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeee e eeeeeee MM eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee. Meee ee, eeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Me ee eeeeee eeeeeee, eee MMM eeeee ee eeeee, eee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeee eee Meee Meeeeeeee (ee Å) ee Meee Meeeee Meeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Me e eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee e-eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee MMMM eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (ee eee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee). Mee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee MM eeee ee eeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (M)-8 eee (M)-8 (Meeeee 8). Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee M- eee M-eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee (8, M8=M; M8=Me) ee eeeeeeee ee ee 8.88 eeee·eee8[‌88‌] ee eeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee ee MM eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee (8.88 eeee·eee8),[‌88‌] eee eeee eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee (8.88 eeee·eee8).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee M/M eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee (8, M8=M8=Me) ee 8.8 eeee·eee8 ee eeeee ee eee M-eeee ee MM eeeeee eeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee 8.88 eeee·eee8 ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eee eee M-eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee M-eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeeee:[‌88‌] (e) eee eee Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeee; (e) eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeee;[‌88‌] eee (e) eσ* eeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee ee eee M8MMM8 eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eπ-eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee σ*-eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee M-eeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee, eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (ee eee eeeee M > M > Me eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee).[‌8‌‌8‌] Meeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee (ee eee eeeee Me > MMMM8 > MMe8 > MM8 > MM88 > M eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee). Meee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeee ee eee eeee eeeee. Me eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeee ee eee eeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eee ee e eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee α-eeeeeeee ee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌‌8‌] Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee, ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee (eee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee). Me ee e eeee-eeeee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (eee eeeeee eeee eeeeee).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me e eeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee ee eee eeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeee, ee e eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeee, eee eee ee Meøeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee, ee eee ee-eeeeee MeeeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌‌8‌] Mee eeee ee eeeee eeee ee eeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeee. Me eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee. Meee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeee ee eeeeee ee eee ee eee eeeeeeeee (eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee), ee ee eeee eeeee eeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee; eeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee) eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, α- eee β-eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eeeee α- eee β-eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeee, eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee, ee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee e 8,e-eeee (e=8, 8, 8, 88, 88) (eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee), eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meøeeeee Meee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌8‌‌8‌]

Meeee eeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌] Meeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeee Meøeeeee eeeee, eee eee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee. Mee ee eee eeeee Meeee eeeee eeee ee eeee eee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee,[‌88‌‌88‌] eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee Meeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee. Meeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] 8,8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee Meeee eeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, ee eee ee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeee Meeee eeee, eee(MM) eeeeeeee, ee eeee eee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8, eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee. Meee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee e 8:8 eeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeee, eeee ee eeee(MMM) eeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeee(MMM) eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeee eee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eee e eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e-eeeeee. Meee e 8.8eee% eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeee eeee, eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee eeee (8) (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee 8:8 eeeeeeeeee eeee/eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeee ee 88°M.[‌88‌] Meeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee 8:8 eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeee(MM) Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee Meeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee, eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee 88°M. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee 88%.[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeee) eeeeee eeeee eee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee ee eee eeeee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeee-M,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee-eeeeeeee eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee/eeeeee eee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee 88% eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeee ee eeeee (eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee: eeeeeee > MMMM8 > MM8 >MM88). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee. Meee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee;[‌88‌] eeeeeee, eeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌] Mee eee ee eee eeee eeeee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, ee eee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee α-eeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Me eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeee. Me eeeeeee eeeee, e eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (MM), ee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8, eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee M eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee), eee eee M eeeee eeeeee ee e eeee eeeeeee eeeee. Me M eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee eeee 8 ee ee eeeeeeeee (eeeee ee eee), eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee M eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee 8 eee, ee eeeeeeee, ee eee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeee e eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 8.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeee Meeeee[‌8‌‌8‌]

Meee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eee ee eeeee eeee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee. Meee-eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Mee Meøeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeee, eee eee ee Meeee eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee ee 8.8eee%. Meeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eee ee eeeeeeee(MMM) eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee 8 ee eeee eeeee 8 (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeee ee 8.888eee%. Meeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee Meeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee β-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eee ee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeeeeee/eeeeeeeee-eeeee Meeee eeeee,[‌88‌] ee eeee ee eeeeeeee(M) eeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eee eeeee eeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee. Meeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eee ee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee,[‌8‌] eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee e 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee, ee e eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeee 88 ee eeeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee 88 ee eeee eeeee 88 (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee/eeeeee(M) eeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

M eeeeee ee M-eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88, M8=Me; MMM) ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee M-eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee M-eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee-8-eeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeee eeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee e eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88, M8=eMe; MMM), ee 8-eeeee-8-[8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (88, MMM),[‌88‌] eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeee e eeeee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeee Meeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

8-Meee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88 eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeeee eeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me ee eeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeee-8-eee eeeeeeee (88) eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee 88 (88°M ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee).[‌88‌] Meeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eee(8-eee-8,8-eeeeeeeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (88) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] (8M-Meeeeeeeeeee-8-eeeee)[eeee(eeeeeeeeeeeee)]eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) ee eeee ee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eee eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee (eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeeee).[‌88‌] Meeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeeeeeeeeee (88, MMMM) eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee (eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeeeee).[‌88‌] eeee-Meeee 8-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeeeeeeeeee (88, MMMM) eeeeee eee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee eee eee eeeeeee, eee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeee-, eeeee-, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee (eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee). Me ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeee, eeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee ee-eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee.[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee (MM8 ee M8MM8M8), ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeee. Meee eee eeeeeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, ee eeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee. Meee, eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee β-eee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eee eee ee ee eeee eeeeeeee, eeee ee eee Meøeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee, ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee, ee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee, ee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Mee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeee ee eee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee e eeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeee (ee ee 8.8 eeeee). Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeee eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (eee Meeeee 8), eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 88.[‌88‌,‌888‌,‌888‌] Mee eee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee, ee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee 88 ee eeeee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee 88, ee eeee eee eeeee 88 eee eeeee eeeeeee (8%) ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee e Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee ee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee e 8:8 eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee.[‌888‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee,[‌888‌,‌888‌] ee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeee eeeee, eeee ee eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee eeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee,[‌888‌] eee ee eeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeee eeeeee eee eee, ee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeee eeeee eeeeee, eeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee β-eee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee ee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeee-8,8,8,8-eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeeeee (88), eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, ee eeeeee ee ee eeee eeeee (ee e eeeeee eeeee) eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee 88 ee eeee eee eeeee 88 (Meeeee 88). Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee e Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee.[‌888‌] M eeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee. Meee, eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee,[‌888‌] ee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee eee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee 88 eeee eeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeee eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee eeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee ee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee ee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 eee ee eeeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee, ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee-eeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee. Meee, eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee, ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88, eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌‌888‌] Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee, ee eee ee eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeeee 88 eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee (eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeee ee MeeeeeMeee, Mee. 8/8, e 88).[‌888‌‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] eeeee,[‌888‌,‌888‌] ee eeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee (88, M=M), ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (88, M=M), eee eeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌,‌888‌] Meeeee eeeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 88 eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeee[‌888‌]

Meeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee 88, eeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88). Me ee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee, e eeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeee 88 ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 88. Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee e eee eeeeeeeeee 88, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eee ee e eeeee eeeee, ee eee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Me ee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeee,[‌888‌,‌888‌] eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌888‌] M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eee­eeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeee eeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeee, eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Me e eeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee-[‌888‌,‌888‌] eee eeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee-Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee Meeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee Me Meee Meeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eee α-eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] ee eeeeeeeee(MMMM) eeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee, eeeeeeeee(MMMM) eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] ee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeee, eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee e eeeee, eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eee MM eeee ee eeeeee 88, ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88). Meee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee-Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee Me Meee Meeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eee ee eeeeeee),[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee eeee,[‌888‌] eeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee Meeee.[‌888‌] Me eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] ee eeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌] eeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee ee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 88 eeeeeee e eeeeee eeeeeeee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88). Meee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 (e eeeeeeee eeeee).[‌888‌] Me eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee 88 eee ee (eeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeee 88, eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeee, eeeee 88 eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Mee MeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee (ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee e [8,8]-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee ee-eeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌‌888‌] Mee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee ee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee MeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee, eee ee eeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Me eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee[‌888‌] ee Meeee eeeee,[‌888‌] eee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] eee eee­eee­eeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌] eeee) eee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee MeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeee-ee, eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 MeeeeeMeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeee ee eee eee ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee Meeeee 88 eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee 88. Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88, eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee 88 (eee eeeeeeeeeeee ­eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeee eee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]), eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88.[‌888‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee eee eeeeeeee[‌888‌] eeee eeee eeee eeee eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meee[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeee ee α-eeee eeeeeee (eeeeee, eeeee, ee eeee) eeee eeeeeeee eeee, ee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeee eee Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌] Meeeee α-eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88). Meee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee α-eeee eeeeee 88 ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee 88. Meeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee 88, ee eeee 88, eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee (ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee) eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee 88. Meee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Me eeeeeee, eee Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee α-eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeee 88 eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeee, ee ee α-eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee, e eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeee ee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Me eeeeeeee, ee ee α,α-eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee eee α-eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee(α-eeeeee) eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeee 88 ee eeeeee eee Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌‌888‌] Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeee ee eee MeeeeMeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee (88, M8=eeeee; M8=M).[‌888‌,‌888‌] Me ee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee(M) eeeee ee eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeee. Meeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeee eeee eeeeeee,[‌888‌] eee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Me ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeee eeeee e eee-eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee e eeee eeeeeee, eee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, ee e eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee(M) eeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeee 88 ee eeeeeeee ee eeee 8 eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee; eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeee eee 8 eeee ee 888°M (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeee. Me eee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (e.e., eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88), eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee (88, M=MM8) ee eeeeeeeeeee (88, M=eeeeeee). Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌] eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌] eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Me eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Me eee eeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (e.e., e eeeeeeeeee), eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee (ee eeee ee eeee eeeeee), eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee ee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeee Meeee eeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] eee eee eee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee. Meee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌] ee eeeeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌] eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, Meeeeee'e eeeeeee [Me8Me(MM)8] eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 88, eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeee 88 eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meee Meeeeeeee[‌888‌]

M eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeee eeeeeee eee eeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Meeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee, eeeeeee, eeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee e β-eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee ee8-eeeeee eeeee eeee ee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee (σ-eeeeee)eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eeeee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee(8)eeeeeee(M) eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌] Meeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee (σ-eeeeee)eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee ee β-eeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee(MM) eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeee 88 eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌,‌888‌] Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeeee, e eeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeee ee e M=M eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee, ee e eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee Meeee eeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeee ee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee[‌888‌] eeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌‌888‌]