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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-020-01369

Maier, M. E.Science of Synthesis, (2007201456.

As Mandolini's group has shown, the rate for the formation of lactones from ω-bromoalkanoate ions is particularly low for ring sizes of eight, nine, and ten atoms.[‌143‌,‌144‌] Therefore, lactonization toward these ring sizes requires special activating agents and, in general, high-dilution conditions in order to prevent diolide and oligomer formation. For the activation of the carboxylic group, several reagents have been developed that are summarized below.[‌145‌]