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26.1 Product Class 1: Aliphatic and Alicyclic Ketones (Excluding Cyclobutanones and Cyclopropanones)

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-026-00002

Vogel, P.Science of Synthesis, (20052613.

General Introduction

Ketones are among the most important organic compounds in terms of their occurrence and utility in chemical and biochemical transformations. In this section the chemical properties of ketones are discussed using, when appropriate, comparison with other carbonyl compounds and related systems. Topics covered include thermochemistry, acid/base properties, hydrogenation, oxidation, hydration, the oxa-ene and DielsAlder reactions, aldol-type reactions, α- and β-anion stabilization, vertical versus nonvertical stabilization, the frangomeric effect, regioselective pinacol-type coupling, bond dissociation energies, and radical chemistry including the Norrish type I and type II processes.

Mee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eee eeeee MMMM, πMM*) ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee (Meeee eeee). Meeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee; eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeee eee eMe (e.e., eeeeeee ee MMMM, eMe 88.8).[‌8‌] Meeee eeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eee α-eeeeee ee ee eee eeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee, eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee.

Me eee eee eeeee, eeeeeee (ΔMe=888.8 eeee·eee8) ee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (ΔMe=888.8 eeee·eee8) eee eeeeeee (ΔMe=888.8 eeee·eee8), eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee­eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee-eeeee eeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee (MM), eeeeeee ee ΔMe=888.8 eeee·eee8 eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 888.8 eeee·eee8 eee eeeeeeee eeeee, 888.8 eeee·eee8 eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee 888 eeee·eee8 eee eeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌] Meeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee Meeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee ΔMe=88.8 eeee·eee8 ee 88°M, eeeeeeee eeee 8.8 eeee·eee8 eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee 88.8 eeee·eee8 eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌]

Mee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee M=M eeeee ee eeeeeee. Meee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee (ΔMe; Meeee 8) ee ee eeeeee eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee.[‌8‌‌8‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eee Mee Meeee[‌8‌]

Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeee Meee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee (ΔMe; eeee·eee8) Mee
eeeeeeeeeeee MeMM 88.8 [‌8‌]
eeeeeeeeeeee MeMM 88.8 [‌8‌]
eeeeeee eMeMM 88.8 [‌8‌]
8-eeeeeeeeeeeee e-MeM 88 [‌8‌]

Meeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeee 8 eeee·eee8. Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee; eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee Meeeeeeee[‌8‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee (Meeee 8). Meee, eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee. Meee ee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee-eee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee [ΔMe=8.8 eeee·eee8, eeeeeeeeeee ­eeeeeeee (M)=8.8×888] ee eeee eeeee ee 88°M, eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee (ΔMe=8.8 eeee·eee8, M=8.88), eee eeeeeeeeee (ΔMe=8.88 eeee·eee8, M=8.8×888) eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌] Meeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee- ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee) eeeee eee α-MM eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee; 8,8,8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee ee 88°M eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8.8×888, 8, 8.88, eee 8.88, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌] Mee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌8‌]

Mee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee 8 eeee·eee8. Mee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee [eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee (eee eeeee)] ee 88.8 eeee·eee8; eeeee 8 eeee·eee8 eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee 88.8 eeee·eee8. Meee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee-8-eee (8) eee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee-8-eee (8) (8 ± 8.8 eeee·eee8 ee eee eee eeeee) eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee (8 ± 8 eeee·eee8) ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee 8 eee 8 (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee Meeeeee eee Meeeeee[‌8‌]

Me ee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee ee ee8-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 8 eee 8 eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee. Me ee eeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee 8M ee eeee eeee eeeeee eeee eee 8-eeeeee 8M. Meee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 888 ± 8 eeee·eee8 eee 888.8 ± 8.8 eeee·eee8 eee 8M eee 8M, eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eee Meeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eee-eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-ee eee eeee-8-ee-8-ee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeee 8 eeee·eee8 eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌8‌‌8‌] Mee eee-eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeee (e.e., 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee; ­Meeee 8, eeeee 8). Mee-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee α-eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee ­eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee-eee eeeeeeee;[‌88‌‌88‌] Meeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee Mee-Mee Meeeeeeee ee eee Mee Meeee[‌8‌]

Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee Meee ee Meeeeeee (ΔMe; eeee·eee8) Mee
8 eeeeeee 8.8 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
8 MeMMM 88.8 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
8 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee 88.8 ± 8.8 [‌8‌]

e ΔMe eeeeeeeee eeee ΔMe (8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eee) eeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-ee.

e ΔMe eeeeeeeee eeee ΔMe (eeee-8-eee) eeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeee-8-ee.

Mee eeeeee-MeeeeMeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eee-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee: eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee 88 eeee·eee8 (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee MeeeeMeeee Meeeeeeee[‌8‌]

Meee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee [8+8] eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee M=M eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee Meeee eeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee-MeeeeMeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee α-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee; eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee ee eeeee-8-eee, (M)- eee (M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee, eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee-8-eee 8 eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, MM) eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee (M)- eee (M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee, eeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee MeMeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeeee e ΔMe [(M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee] ee eeeee 88.8 eeee·eee8.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeee ee Meeeeeeee ee (M)- eee (M)-Mee-8-ee-8-ee[‌88‌]

Mee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee (ΔMe) ee (M)-eee-8-eee ee eeeeee ee 88.8 eeee·eee8, eeee ee eeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee 88.8 eeee·eee8, eee eeee ee eeee-8-eee ee eeeeeee 88.8 eeee·eee8 (Meeeee 8).[‌8‌] Meee eeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee eee ee e(M)/π-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 8.8 eeee·eee8. Meeee eeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee (M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee eeeeee ee eeeee 88 eeee·eee8 eee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ΔMe [(M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee] = 88 eeee·eee8. Me eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee Meeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee-8-eee ee ΔMe [eeeee-8-eee (M)-eee-8-ee-8-ee]=88.8 eeee·eee8 ee 88°M,[‌88‌] e eeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee (88 eeee·eee8).

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeee ee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee, Meeeeee Meeee, Meeeeee, eee Meee Meeeeeeee eee Mee-8-ee-8-ee[‌8‌]

Meeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, Meeeeee eee Meeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee 8 ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eee eeeee eeee eeee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee, e eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee, eeeeeeeeee eee eeee 8 eeee 8. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eee eeee 8 eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee Meeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee (88.8 ± 8 eeee·eee8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Mee Meeee Meee/Meee Meeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

Meee ΔMe (eeee·eee8) Mee
eMe8M 88 [‌88‌]
MeMM8 88.8 [‌88‌]

Mee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌88‌‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee 8,8-eeeee eeeeeee, eee eeee eeeee eee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeeeee ee Meee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeee Meeeeeee Meee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee (M)e Mee
8 MeMMM 888 [‌88‌]
8 8×888 [‌88‌]
8 8.8×888 [‌88‌]
8 8.8×888 [‌88‌]
8 8.8×888 [‌88‌]
8 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 88 [‌88‌]
8 >88 [‌88‌]

e M=[eeee]/[eeeeeeee].

Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee Meeee 8.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee; eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee ee eee ee eeeeeeee. M eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee:[‌88‌] eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (eee M=8.88; Meeee 8, eeeee 8), eeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (eee M=8.8; Meeee 8, eeeee 8). Meee eee eeeeee ee α-eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (e.e., MM8), eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 8 (Meeee 8) eeee e eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eee eeeee.

Meeee 8 Meeee-Meee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeee ee 88°M[‌88‌]

Meeee M8 M8 M8 Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee (eee M)e Mee
8 M M M 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 Me M M 8.8 [‌88‌]
8 Me M M 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 M M Me 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 Me M Me 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 Me M Me 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 Me Me M 8.8 [‌88‌]
8 Me Me Me 8.88 [‌88‌]
8 Me MM8 Me 8.88 ± 8.88×888e [‌88‌]

e 8.8M MMe, eeeeeeeee ee MeMM.

e Meeee ee M8.

Meeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee (ee. 8 eee·M8·eee8 eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee) ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee (88 ee 88 eee·M8·eee8), eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee­eeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eeeeee <8 eeee·eee8, eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee. 88 eee·M8·eee8) eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eeeeee <8 eeee·eee8, eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee. 88 eee·M8·eee8, MΔM=ee. 8 eeee·eee8 ee 888 M) eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ­eeeee eeeeeeee. Meee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee Meeeee 8.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeee ee 88°M[‌88‌]

Mee α-MM eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeee MM ee eeeeee MM eeeee. Meee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee (eee eeeeeeeee eeeee 8M eee 8M, Meeeee 88). Meee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee σe=8.88 eee σe=8.88 eee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee α-Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee ee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeee[‌88‌]e

Meeeeeeeeee 88

8M 8M
eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee: eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee: eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee
eeeeeeeeeeeee: MM=eμ(eeeθ)/εe8 eeeeeeeeeeeee: MM=e8α/8εe8
eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee M=M eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee M=M eeeeee

e μ=eeeeee eeeeee ee M=M; θ=eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee; e=eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee; ε=eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee; e=eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee M=M eeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeeeeeee β ee e eeeeeeee eeeee, e.e. eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee 88, eeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (eeeeeeeee eeee) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee π-eeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee). Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee eee eeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌] eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee-8-eee, e eee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee β-eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee β-eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eee MeeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee β-Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee ee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee α-eee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeee eee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Me eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 (eeee=8) eee 88 (eeee=ee. 888; Meeeee 88), Meeeee eee ee-eeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee α-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eee α-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeee ee e 8-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee. Meee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeee ee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee-eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee M8 eeeeee ee 88. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee 88, eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee-Meeeeeeee α-Meeeeee Meeee ee e 8-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeee-eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee MM8/888M** eeeee[‌88‌] ee eee 8-eeeeeeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeee eee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee 88 eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeee eeeeee 88 ee eeee eeeee 8 eeee·eee8 (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee eeeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee π-eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee α-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee (eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee MM ~ αe8/8εe8 ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee MM ~ eμeeeθ/εe8).

Meeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee eee e(MM) σ π eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee (88M), ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee (88M). Meee eee eeee eee eeee eee eee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeeee 88M eee 88M eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee 88 eee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee (ΔM, eeeeee eeeee 888M*/888M eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee) eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee 88 eee 88 (ΔM=8.8 eeee·eee8) ee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee 88M/88M (ΔM=8.8 eeee·eee8) eee 88M/88M (ΔM=8.8 eeee·eee8), eeeee ee eee eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Me eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌] eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee 88M (ee eee eee eeeee) eee eeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeee- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee-8-eeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88) eeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 88 ee eee 8-eeeeeee-8-ee eeeeee ee ee ee eeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee. Mee 8-eeeeeee-8-ee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeee-8-ee eeeeee 88, eee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee (MM8/888M** eeeeeeeeeee/888* eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee)[‌88‌] ee ee eeee eeeeee eeee 88 ee 88.8 eeee·eee8. Mee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 88 ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee e(MM) σ(M8,M8) e(M8)+ eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee M8M8 eeee ee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee σ(M8,M8) eee π(MM) eeeee eee eeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeee (Meeeee 88). Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeeee 88M, 88M, eee 88 (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee 8-eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee e(MM) eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee σ(M8,M8) eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee) eeee eee π-eeeeee ee M8.

Meeeee 88 Mee 8-Meeeeee-8-ee Meeeee eee Mee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee, e π-eeeeeeee, ee eeee ee e-eeeee, e eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, e.e. 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌‌88‌] Me eeeeeeeee eeee 88M, eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee; eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee e π-eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeee eeee 88M, eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee; eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee e σ-eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Mee Meeeeeee Meeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeee eee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee/eeeee (8:8) (Meeeee 88). Meeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee 8-eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888888 eee eee 8-eee eeeeeeeeeee 88 eee 88 eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e 88 eeee·eee8 eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee 8-eee eeeee ee e eeeeeee-eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee e(MM) σ(M8,M8) e(M8)+.

Meeeee 88 Mee 8-Meeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eee- eee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeee[8.8.e]eee-8-ee-8-eeee 88 eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, e.e. eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 (M=Me) ee eeeeeeeeeeeee 88 (M=MMe), eeeeee eeee eeeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] M eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (M=M, Me) ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee 88. Mee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee M8 ee eee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeee eee M, eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee M8-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee 88 ee eeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Me eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee 88, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee M8 eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 88 eeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee M8. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeee M8 eeeeeeeeeee ee 88.

Meeeee 88 Mee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee eee Meeeeeee Meeee ee eee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeee β,γ-Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee M8 eee M8 ee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee-8-ee eee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee-8-ee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. 8-Meeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee-8-eee (88) eeeeeee eeee 88 eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee-eeee eeeeeeeee eee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eee-8-ee-8-eee[‌88‌]

8,8-Meeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌] ee ee­eeee,[‌88‌‌88‌] eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeee, ee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee. 8-eee-Meeee- eee 8-eeee-eeeee-8,8-eee-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeeeee (88, M=MM; M= MMe eee M=MMe; M=MM, eeeeeeeeeeee) eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee-Meee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 eeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee 8,8-eeeee ee eee β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee [eeee σ(M8,M8)]. Meeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeee-8-eee 88 eeeee eeeeeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeee eeeeeee. Me eeee eeee, eee 8,8-eeeee ee eee eeee eeeee (88 88) ee ee eeeee 88 eeeee eeeeee eeee eee 8,8-eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee (88 88) eeeeee eeeeeee 88.[‌88‌,‌88‌] 8,8-Meeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee > eeeee > α-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeee 88/88 eee 88/88 eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee, eeeee, eee α-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee e(MM) σ e(M)+ ee eee MeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eee eeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee ee e Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee e(MM) Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee MM eee MM eeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee ee Meeee 8 eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌‌8‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeee Meee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌8‌]

Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee: M8 + M ee Me Meee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee (ΔM; eeee·eee8) Mee
eeeeeee 88 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
eeeeeee 888.8 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
8-eeeeeeeeeeeee 88.8 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
eeeeeee 88 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
eeeeeee 88.8 ± 8.8e [‌8‌]
8-eeeeeeeeeeeee 88.8 ± 8e [‌8‌]

e Meeeeeeeee ee ΔM(M8/M) eeeee M8 ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee.

e Meeeeeeeee ee ΔM(M8/Me) eeeee M8 ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Me eeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee 88 eeee·eee8, e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee 88 eeee·eee8. Meee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeee e M=M eeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee [ΔM(MeM/M)=888.8 eeee·eee8 ee ΔM(MeMM8/M)=888.8 eeee·eee8]. Me eeeeeeee, eee MM eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eee MM eeee eeeeeeeee ­eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8). Meee eeeeeeee eeee ee α-eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee e(M) eeeeeeee eeee (Meeeee 88). Meee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeee ee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee-Meee Meee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee 88.8 ± 8.8 eeee·eee8. Meeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Me e eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee 8 ee 8 eeee·eee8, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌] Meeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8888 ­eee·M8·eee8), eeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeeeee ee Meee Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee-eeee M=M eeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeee α-eee eeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee e eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee 88 eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee (Me8Me), eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee e Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeee[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-ee eeeeeee (Me8MMM8Me) ee eeeeeeeeee ee 88.8 ± 8 eeee·eee8, eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeee (e-MeM) eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee 8.8 ± 8.8 ­eeee·eee8. Mee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌] [ΔM(e-MeM/M)=888 eeee·eee8], ΔMe(e-MeMM)=88.8 eeee·eee8, eee ΔMe(M)=88.8 eeee·eee8. Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee eeeeeee [Me8MMMe] eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee ee. 8 eeee·eee8;[‌8‌‌8‌] eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeee. Meee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee. Meee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee ee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee (MeM; eeeeeeee ee eeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeee ee 88.8 ± 8.8 eeee·eee8 eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (M8MMMe; eeeeeeee ee eeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeee ee 88.8 ± 8.8 eeee·eee8. Meeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee.[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeee ee e Meeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌] eeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeee eeeeee (eee MeeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeee), ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee[‌888‌] (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee 88[‌888‌,‌888‌] eeee eee eeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee (MeeeeeeeeMeeee eeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌] (Meeeee 88). Meeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeee 88 eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eee β-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeee 88 (eeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee).[‌888‌] Meeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 eeeeeeeee e eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 88 eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeee(MM) Meeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee(8), eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee e eeee/eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee,[‌888‌‌888‌] eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeee-eeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eee(eeeee) eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee(8) (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 MeMeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee/ee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Me eeee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeee, eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (MMM) eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88. M eeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeee 88 eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee/eeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌] Me eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 eeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee Meeeeee eee Meeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee(MMM) Meeeeeee eee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeee (e.e., 88) eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee (MMM) eeeeee eee MeeeeeeeMeeeeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌‌888‌] Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88, eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee. Me eeee eeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eee-eee eeeeeeee (eee Meeee 8).

Meeeee 88 MeeeeeeeMeeeeeeeMeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌888‌‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeee MM eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee e Meeee eeeeee (λeee > 888ee) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee e πMM* eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee e(MM) eeeeeee (MMMM) ee eee eeeeee (MMMM) eeeeeee ee eee πMM eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee ε-eeeeee eeeeee 88888, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee. Meeee eee e(M) eee πMM* eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee Meeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeee) eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeee eee (888 eeee·eee8) eeeeeee eee eeeeeee (M8) eee eeeeeee (M8) eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee, eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee. Meee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee. Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee (eeee eeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeee) eeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeee eeeee (888 eeeeeee ee e eee eeeeeee). Me e eeeeeee eeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeee Meeeeee eee Meeeeee Meeeeee Meeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee, ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee π-eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeee. Meee, eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeeee e(M) eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee σMM eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee σMM eeee α ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee e eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee MeeeeeMeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee 8e eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee eee eeeeeeee σMM eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee). Meee ee eeee eee eeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee. Me eee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee α-eeeeeeee, e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee Meeeeeeee eee Meeeee ee 8888 eee eeeee eeeee ee eee Meeeeee eeee M eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Me Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeee Meee M Meeeeee eee Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee [8(e,π*)] eee eee eeeeeeeee ee e 8,8-eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee. Me ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee π-eeeee ee eee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee ee. Me eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee- (Meeeee 88)[‌888‌] ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Meeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee Meeeeee Meee M Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meee Meeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meee e γ-MM eeee ee ee eee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeee e 8,8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee; eeee ee eee Meeeeee eeee MM eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meee eeeeeeee) ee eeeeeee Meee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee ee eee Meeeeee Meee MM Meeeeee[‌888‌]

Me eeee eeeee, MM eeeee eeee eeeeee eeee γ ee eee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee e 8α-Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee [8+8] eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee M=M eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeee MeeeeeòMüeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌] M eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee. Mee 8(e,π*) eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee e 8,8-eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee.[‌888‌] Meeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee [8+8] eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee[‌888‌] eeee eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeee ee e Meeee- eee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee MeeeeeòMüeee Meeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee e eeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ­eeeeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌] Mee eeeeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee MM eeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee-8-eeee 88 eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee β-eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee-eeeeeee eeeeee 88. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeee ee 88 eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 eee ee eeeeeee eee. Me eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee, 88 ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeee eeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 eeeeeeeee eeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Me Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌888‌]