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26.1.1.2.6.1 Variation 1: With Ruthenium-Based Catalysts

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-026-00003

von Angerer, S.Science of Synthesis, (20052674.

Many catalysts for aerobic oxidation of alcohols to ketones, such as 89, (or aldehydes) are based on ruthenium in different oxidation states.[‌233‌‌243‌] In order to provide molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant the reactions are carried out under an oxygen atmosphere or with a stream of oxygen being passed through the reaction mixture. Typical examples for the use of ruthenium(II), (III), and (VII) reagents are listed in Table 4. With one exception all reactions are performed in organic solvents. However, oxidations with oxygen and dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) as catalyst can also be performed in ionic liquids such as Aliquat (Table 4, entry 4).[‌237‌] Some catalytic systems comprise two different metals. An example is the ternary system consisting of the ruthenium complex 86, the cobalt complex 87, and 2,6-di-tert-butylbenzo-1,4-quinone (88) (Scheme 56 and Table 4, entry 8).[‌241‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee Meee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeee Meeeee[‌888‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeee eeee Meeeeeeee-Meeee Meeeeeeee[888,888-888,888]

Meeee Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee, Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
8 eeeeeeeee-8-eee MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8eee%), MMMMM (8eee%) MeMe, 888°M, 8e 88 [‌888‌]
8 eeeeeee-8-eee Me8MMeM8 (8eee%) eeeeeee, 8-Å eeeeeeeee eeeeee, 8888°M 88 [‌888‌]
8 ()-eeeeeeee Me8MMeM8 (88eee%) MM8Me8, 8-Å eeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee, 88eee 88 [‌888‌]
8 eeeeeeeeeeeeee MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8eee%) Meeeeee, 88°M, 88e 88 [‌888‌]
8 8-eeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeee [Me8(μ-Me)8(η8-e-eeeeee)8] (88eee%), Me8MM8 (8 eeeee) eeeeeee, 888°M, 88 [‌888‌]
8 eee-8-ee-8-eee Me(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8.8e·eeee8 eeeeeee) eeeeeee, 88°M, 8e 88 [‌888‌]
8 ()-eeeeeeee MeMe8eM8M (8eee%), ­Me(MMe)88M8M (8eee%) MeMMe, MeMMM (8 eeeee), 88°M, 8e 88 [‌888‌]
8 eeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 (8.8eee%), 88 (8eee%), 88 (88eee%) MMM, 88°M, 88e 88 [‌888‌]
8 eeeeeeeeeeeee Me(MMM)/eeeeeee (8.8eee% Me) MeMM8, 88°M, 8e ~88 [‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee 88 eeee Meeeeeeee(MMM) Meeeeeee: Meeeeeeee ee ()-Meeeeeee (Meeee 8, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌888‌]

Me e eeeeeee eeeeeee ee ()-eeeeeee (8.88e, 88.8eeee), MeMe8eM8M (8.888e, 8.88eeee), eee Me(MMe)88M8M (8.888e, 8.88eeee) ee MeMMe (88eM) eee eeeee e eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (8.88e, 88eeee) ee MeMMe (88eM) eeeeeeee ee 88°M eeee e eeeeee ee 8.8e eeeee ee M8 eeeeeeeeee (8 eee, eeeeeee). Meeee eeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee 8.8e, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee 8M Me8MM8 (88eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee. MeMMM8 (88eM) eee eeeee (88eM), eeee eeeee (MeMM8). Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%).

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