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43.1.1.1.1.1 Variation 1: Glaser Coupling

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-043-00002

Hirsch, A.; Vostrowsky, O.Science of Synthesis, (20084339.

The original Glaser procedure for the isolation of potentially explosive and poorly crystallizing copper acetylides failed to find broad synthetic application. However, as copper(I) acetylides can be formed in situ, this type of coupling has subsequently become a widely applicable and powerful tool for the construction of CC bonds. It is now used for the preparation of di- and oligoacetylenes,[‌49‌,‌51‌] and is highly suitable for the preparation of symmetrical diynes. This utility was demonstrated first with the dimerization of (2-nitrophenyl)acetylene in Baeyer's historic indigo synthesis.[‌52‌] Another example is Baeyer's preparation of 1,4-diphenylbuta-1,3-diyne derivatives[‌53‌] and the synthesis of buta-1,3-diyne and its dicarboxylic acid derivatives,[‌54‌,‌55‌] potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) being the oxidizing agent.[‌52‌‌54‌]

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Meeee 8 Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee Meeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee M8 Meeeeeeeeee Meeeee (%) eee (°M) eee (°M/Meee) Mee
8 MM M8[Me(MM)8], MeMe, MM8/M8M, MMe8 <88 e.e. e.e. [‌88‌‌88‌]
8 MM8MM eee, M8, MeMe, MM8Me, M8M e.e. 888 888888/8 [‌88‌]
8 MM(MM)Me eee, M8, MeMe, MM8Me, M8M e.e. 88 888888/8 [‌88‌]
8 MMe8MM eee, M8, MeMe, MM8Me, M8M e.e. 888 [‌88‌]
8 M8, Me(MMe)8, eeeeeeee/MeMM/Me8M 88 e.e. [‌88‌]
8 M8, MeMe (888eee%), MMM (888eee%), eeeeeeee, 8.8e, 88°M 88 888 (eee) [‌88‌]
8 MM8MMe-Me M8, MeMe8, MMe, M8M, MM8Me, M8 88 8888 888888/8.88 [‌88‌]
8 M8, MeMe, eeeeeeee, 8e, ee 88 888 [‌88‌]
8 Me MeMe8 (8 eeeee), MeMMe (8 eeeee), eeMM8, 8e 888 88.888.8 [‌88‌]
88 (MM8)8Me MeMe8, MeMMe, MeMM, eeMM8 (88MMe, 88°M), 8e 88 e.e. [‌88‌]
88 MMe8MM MeMe8, MeMMe, MeMM, eeMM8 (88MMe, 88°M), 8e 888 e.e. [‌88‌]

e eeMM8=eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee.

e e.e.=eee eeeeeeee.

Me eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee-8,8-eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee 8 eee 8 eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eee eeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee 8 eee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee 8 eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeeee Meee-8,8-eeeeee Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeee eeeee Meeeee Meeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 8 eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeee 8. Meeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeee-8,8-eeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 ee 88% eeeee (Meeeee 8).

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeeeee ee ee MeeeMeeeeeeee Meeeeee ee e Meee-8,8-eeeee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MeMe (8.8e) eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 88% ee MM8MM (88eM) eee eeeeeeee eee M8M eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee e eeeee eeee (888eM) eee eeeeeeee. Meee eeee eee eeeeee ee ee eee eeee eee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8.8e, 8.888eee) eee eeeee eeee eee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee M8. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee M8, eee eeeeee eeee 8.8% ee MM8MM (8×), eee eeee eeee M8M. (MMMMMMM: Meeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee eee eeee ee eeeee eeee eee eee eeee eeee.)

Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee MMe8 (88eM) (MMMMMMM: eeeee) eee M8M (88eM), eeeeee ee 8°M, eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeee M8[Me(MM)8] (88.8e) ee M8M (88eM) eeeeee 8eee. Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee 88eee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee, eeeee eeeeee e eeeeee MMe8 ee eeee eeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee e eeeee, eeeeeeee, eee eeeee (MeMM8). Mee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee (ee eeeee 8eM) ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee e Meeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee e eeeeee ee eee M8 eeeeeee eee eeee, eeeee eee eeeeee ee ee eee eeee. Mee eeeee-eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee 88°M. Meee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888%.

Meee-8,8-eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee{[η8-8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee](η8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee(MM)} (88):[‌88‌]

[Me(Me*)8]MM8 (8.88 eeeee) eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee e eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8 ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 88°M. Meeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 8e, e eeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee e eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Me8M. Meeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeee eee eeeeee eeee Me8M. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (MM8Me8/eeeeeee) eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee-eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee(eeeeeeeeee) eeeeeee 8; eeeee: 88%. Meee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee e-MeMM (8 eeeee) ee MMM ee 88°M ee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeee; eeeee: 88%.

References