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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-045-00510

Black, D. A.; Fagnou, K.Science of Synthesis, (201045549.

Compared to its use as a stoichiometric reagent, there are relatively few examples of copper being used as a catalyst for biaryl synthesis.[‌3‌,‌19‌] Recently, however, practical alternatives to palladium-catalyzed processes have been deployed. In these innovations the catalysts are often air- and moisture-stable, and frequently utilize inexpensive amine-based ligands, or even have no ligands at all. A variety of transmetalating agents may be employed, including boronic acids and organotin reagents.