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48.1.2.2.1 Variation 1: Couplings of Alkyl Grignard Reagents (Kumada–Tamao–Corriu Reaction) Mediated by Copper, Silver, Nickel, Palladium, Iron, and Cobalt

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-048-00012

Kantchev, E. A. B.; Organ, M. G.Science of Synthesis, (20094838.

As early as 1969, it was recognized that the mechanism of organocuprate displacement allowed for the reaction to be rendered catalytic.[‌2‌] As a copper(I) halide is the byproduct of the reaction and organocuprates are prepared from alkyllithium or Grignard reagents and a copper(I) salt (halide or cyanide) just before the coupling in the actual reaction flask, these two processes together provide the means for the overall cross-coupling reaction to become catalytic in copper. It has been shown that the yield of nonane from the reaction of 1-iodooctane with 3 equivalents of methyllithium is increased from 6 to 64% by addition of just 5mol% of copper(I) iodide.[‌2‌] The use of copper(II) salts leads to alkylcopper(I) intermediates by rapid reduction by the Grignard reagent (usually employed in excess).[‌31‌] Accordingly, simple copper(I) and copper(II) salts have been employed as the catalyst in alkylalkyl Grignard couplings (Table 2).[‌31‌‌36‌] A notable example is the use of copper(I) bromidebis(triethyl phosphite) complex to mediate the coupling of 2-bromoethanol derivatives (the tert-butyl or ethyl ethers, 4-toluenesulfonate, acetate, or magnesium alkoxide), which are prone to elimination with alkyl Grignard reagents.[‌35‌] It has been noted that adding hexamethylphosphoric triamide in tetrahydrofuran (1:12) and reverse addition of the Grignard reagent to the alkyl halide increase yields.[‌34‌] Copper(II) chloride in the presence of 4 equivalents of 1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one as an additive also shows high activity.[‌37‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee eee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeeee ee Meeeee Meeeee Meeee[‌8‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌]

M8 M M8M (eeeee) Me Meeeeeee (eee%) Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
(MM8)8Me M MeMe (8) MeM (8) Me8M, ee, 88e 88 [‌8‌]
(MM8)8MMe Me Me(MM8)8MeMe (8.8) MeMe8M(MMe)8 (8) MMM, 88°M, <8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MMe Me MeMeMe (8.8) MeMe8M(MMe)8 (8) MMM, 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM Me e-MeMeMe (8) MeMe8M(MMe)8 (8) MMM, 88°M, 88eee 88 [‌88‌]
MMMe(MM8)8MM8MeMe Me M8M=MM(MM8)8MeMe (8) Me8Me8 (8) MMM, 88°M, 8.8e 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M8M=MM(MM8)8MeMe (8.8) MeMe (88.8) MMM, 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M MeMeMe (8.8) MeMe8 (8) MMM (8 eeeee), MMM, ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM)[‌88‌] (Meeee'e eeeeeeee), eeeeeeeee ee 8888 ee Meeee eee Meeeee, eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌] eeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e 8.8M eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8). Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee 8 eee eeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee, Meeee'e eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee (8.8 eeeeeeeeeee); eeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee (e.e., 88) eee ee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee eee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM)[‌88‌‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌]

M8M M8MeM (eeeee) Meeeee ee Me8MeMe8 (eee%) Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
Me(MM8)8Me MeMeMe (8.8) 8 MMM, 8°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMe Me(MM8)8MeMe (8.8) 8 MMM, 8°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMMe MeMeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, Me8M, 88 ee 8°M, 88e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8MMe e-MeMeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, Me8M, 88 ee 8°M, 88e 88e [‌88‌]
MeMeMe (8.8) 8 MMM, 88 ee ee, 88e 88e [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8Me eMeMeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, 8°M, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8Me e-MeMeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, 8°M, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8Me eMe(MM8)8MeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, 8°M, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)88MMe MeMeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, Me8M, ee, 88e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8M eMeMeMe (8.8) 8 MMM, 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8MeMe (8) 8.8 MMM, 88 ee 8°M, 88e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)88MeMe (8.8) 8.8 MMM, 88 ee ee, 88e 88 [‌88‌]
(M)-M8M=MMMMMe(MM8)8MeMe (8.8) 8 MMM, 88 ee 8°M, 88e >88 [‌88‌]
Me(MM8)8MeMe (8) 8.8 Me8M, 88°M, 88eee, eeee 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMMM8(MM8)8Me MeMeMe (8.8) 8 MMM (8 eeeee), MMM, ee, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
eMeM(M)(MM8)8Me MeMeMe (8.8) 8 MMM (8 eeeee), MMM, ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]

e MM eeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee: 88%.

e Meee MMe eeeeee eee eeeeeeee.

e Meee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee ee e Meeeeeee Meeee 8-MeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeMeeeee Meeeeeeee Me Meee ee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Me eee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee Meeee'e eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 88eee%.[‌88‌] Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee, eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee, eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeee eeeeeeeeee; eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee. M eeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee (8888%) ee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee; eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee, eeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88°M).[‌88‌] Me eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee, eeeeee(MM) ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee(M) ee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee'e eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee eee 8 eeeee ee 88°M ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee(M) eeee (Me8MeMe8) eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee ee e eeeeeeeee eeee eeee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee (e.e., eeeeee, eeeee, eeeeeee) eee eeee eeeeeeeee.

Mee eee ee e eee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee(M) eeeeeeee (8eee%) eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 88 (88eee%) eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee, eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=(MM8)8Me; M8=e-Me] ee 88% eeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee Meeee'e eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee (8:8 eeeee eeeee) eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeee ee 8°M.[‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eeeeee).

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee ee e Meeee Meeeee/Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeee ee Meeee eee Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeee e eeee π-eeeeeeee eeeeee) eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM), eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee, e eeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee (8eee%) eeee e eeeeeee π-eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee-8,8-eeeee (888eee%), ee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee 88 eee eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeeee(M) eee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeee, 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee, eeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM)/eeee-8,8-eeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee (8eee%)/8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eee (88eee%) eeeee ee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee, e.e. 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeee π-eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee-8,8-eeeee eeeeeee eeee 88% ee eeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee (888%) eeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8-(8-eeeee)eeee-8-eee. Mee eeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee < eeeeeeee < eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee < 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee < eeeeeee; eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 8). Meee, 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeee-8-eee eee (eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee, Meeeeeeee, eee Meeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee eee Meeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeee/π-Meeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

M8 M M8 Meeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
(MM8)8Me M Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M Me M 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M eMe M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M e-Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me M ee, 8e 8 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM=MMe8 M Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me M 88°M, 8e 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me M ee, 88e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me e-Me M 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me e-Me M 88°M, 8e 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M e-Me M 88°M, 8e 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe e-Me M 88°M, 8e 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me M ee, 88eee 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MMMeMe Me Me M 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM=MM8 Me Me M 88°M, 8e 88e [‌88‌]

e Meeeeee ee eee-8-eee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeee 8-Meeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee 88 eeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee(M) eeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee.

Meeee eeeee 88 eeeeee, eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meee eeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eeee. Meeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee(MM) eee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (<8% eeeee ee eeeeee), eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee 8888% eeee).[‌88‌] Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee [8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) (8eee%) ee eeeeeee eeeee, eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] M eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee eeeeeee (MM eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee), ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee, eeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee (ee ee 88%) eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeee eeeee β-eeeeeeeee). Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee [8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM), eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(8).[‌88‌] Meeeee eeee eeee, eee eeeeeee ee e eee-eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee (88%) ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) (8eee%) eee eeeeeeee;[‌88‌] eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee(MM) ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee (8%). [8,8-Mee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) (8eee%) ee eeeeeeeeee ee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee-eeee eeeee eeeeee (eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee) eeee eeee eeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee;[‌88‌] eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee, e eeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee eee eee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eee eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) ee eeee eeeeeee 88 eee eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8)[‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌] eeee π-eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeee 8).

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee, Meeeeeeee, ee Meeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee eee Meeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeee eee Meeeeeeee/π-Meeeeeee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌]

M8 M M8 M Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
(MM8)8Me Me Me Me M 8°M, 88eee 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me Me Me M 8°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8(MM8)8 Me Me Me M 8°M, 88eee 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me Me eMe Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Me (MM8)8Me Me M 8°M, 88eee 88 [‌88‌]
eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Me (MM8)8Me Me M 88°M, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
(M)-(MM8)8MM=MMMe Me Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe Me Me M 8°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe e-Me Me M ee, 8e 888 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe Me Me M 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe Me Me M ee, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me MMe Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8(MM8)8 MMe Me Me M 88°M, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8(MM8)8 MMe Me Me M ee, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM=MM8 Me Me Me M ee, 8e 88e [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8Me M Me Me M 8e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM=MMe8 M Me Me M ee, 8e 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeeee M: MeMe8 (88eee%), eeee-8,8-eeeee (88888eee%); Meeeee M: Me(eeee)8 (88eee%), eeee-8,8-eeeee (88888eee%); Meeeee M: 88 (88eee%); Meeeee M: 88 (88eee%); Meeeee M: Me(eeee)8 (8eee%), eeee-8,8-eeeee (888eee%); Meeeee M: Me(eeee)8 (8.8eee%), 88 (88eee%).

e MM eeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee: 88%.

e 88% ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee.

e MM eeeee. Meeeeeee eeeee: 88% (MMMM).

e Meeeeee: eee-8-eee.

Meee-8,8-eeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee, eeeee-8,8-eeeee, 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee, eeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee, 8-eeeeeeeee-8-eee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee ee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee; eee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8) eeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee 88888eee% eeee-8,8-eeeee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeee 88, eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee-8,8-eeeee eeeeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee ee eeeee eeeeee (MeMe8, MeMe8, MeMe8) eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee 888eee% ee eeee-8,8-eeeee. Mee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee ee eeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (eee Meeeee 8, Meeeeee 88.8.8.8). Me eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee-8,8-eeeee ee eeeeee(8) ee eeeeeeeee(8) ee eeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eee(π-eeeee)eeeeee(MM) ee -eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeee π-eeeee ee eeeeee eeee η8- ee η8-eeee eee eeee ee e eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee. Meeeee ee eee eee(π-eeeee)eeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeee(MM) eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeee ee ee MM8-eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee η8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee. Me eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee ee, eee eeeeee eeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee, eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeee, eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eee(η8-eeeee)eeeeee(MM) (88) ee eee(π-eeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) (88) eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8 ee 88°M, eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (88eee%), eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee ee eeee-8,8-eeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeeee Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee (eee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8). Meee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee (eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee.

Meee eeeeeeee e eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeee-eeee eee(eeeee)eeeee (MM8) eeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee (8eee%) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88°M eeee 88 eeeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeee ee Meeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee M8 M M8 M Meeee (%) Mee
8 M eMe Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 M 8-MeMM8M8(MM8)8 Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 (MM8)8MMe Me (MM8)8Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 (MM8)8Me Me (MM8)8Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
8 MMMe(MM8)8MM8Me M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee, eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeee eeeee, eee eee ee 8eee% ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeee ee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee 88, 88, eee 88% eeeeee ee 88, 88, eee 8°M, eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee; eeeeeee, β-eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee e 8% eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88°M eee 88% ee 88°M ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 888°M eeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeee ee Meeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee M8 M8 Meeeeeee (eee%) Meee (°M) Meeeeeee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
8 M Me 8 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 8 8 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 8 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 8 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 88 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 88 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M Me 8 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
8 M eMe 88 88 8.8 88 [‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeee-e8 eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee e eee eeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeee eeeeee (ee ee 888 eeeeeeeeeee), eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeee 8eee% ee eee eeeeeeee; eeeeeee, 88eee% ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee ee 8 eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee eee e eeeeee(MM)/eeeeee(MM) eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeee/eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee Meeee; eee Meeee 8), eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee ee Meeeeee 88.8.8.8.8 eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee), eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee 888°M. Me eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee e eeeeeeeee, eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee.

Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee eeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee[‌88‌] ee 88% eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (88) (Meeeee 88) eeeeee 88 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee 8eee% ee eee eeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee-[8,8-eee(8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeee]eeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) (88, MMMMMM-MMe).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 MeeeeMeeee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee ee MMMMMM-MMe[‌88‌]

Meee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee, eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee 8888,[‌88‌] eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeee. Me 8888, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (8888%) eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee (888%) eeee eeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88) eeeeeeee ee eeee(MM) eeeeeee (8eee%)/Meeeeeee (88; 8eee%) ee eeee eeeeeee (e.e., 88) eee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee eeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee, eeeeee eeeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeee- eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-8,8-eeeeeeeeee (MMMMM), eee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (M-Meee), eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (<88%); eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee. Mee eee ee eeeee eeee(MM) eee eeee(MMM) eeeee eee eeee eee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee: eee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeee-8-eee eeeeeeee eeee 8-eee-eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee-8-eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Me 8888, e eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee/eeeeeee eeeeee/M,M,M,M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8:8:8; 8eee% eeeeee) eee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeee eeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee(MMM) eeeeeee ee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee 88. Meeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee, eee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee, eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeee, eeeeeee, eee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 MeeeeMeeee MeeeeeMeeeeMeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eee Meeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meee eee Meeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meeeee [8, M8=(MM8)8Me; M8=Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M 888-eM, eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee-eeeee, eeeeeee eeee M8, eee eeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeee. Meeee MMM (888eM), 8-eeeeeeeeeee (8.8eM, 8.88e, 88eeee), eee e 8M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (88eM, 88eeee) eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee ee eee eeee eee e 8.8M eeee ee Me8MeMe8 ee MMM (8.8eM, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee. Mee Me8MeMe8 eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee MeMe (8.88e, 8.8eee) eee eeeee MeMe8 (88.88e, 8.8eee) ee eeeee MMM (8M). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee 8°M eee 8e eee eeeeeeee eeee eee M8MM8. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (8×) eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (MeMM8). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%); ee 888°M/88Meee. MM eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee.

8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee [8, M8=(MM8)8Me; M8=e-Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeee ee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88.88e, 88eeee) ee eeeee MMM (88eM) eeee eeeee e 8.88M eeee ee e-MeMeMe ee Me8M (88eM) eee e 8.8M eeee ee Me8MeMe8 ee MMM (8eM; 8.8eeee) ee 88°M. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee ee eeee 8e eee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee 88e. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee 8M M8MM8, eeeeee eeee M8M (8×88eM), eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.8e (88%); ee 8888°M/88Meee.

(M)-8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee [8, M8=(M)-(MM8)8MMMe(MM8)8MM=MMe8; M8=(MM8)8Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me eeeeeeee (8.88e, 88eeee) eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee MMM (88eM) eee 88eee. M eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee (8.88e, 88eeee) ee eeeee MMM (88eM) eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee 88eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee e eeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeee; eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M8 eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeee eee eeeeeeee eee 8e. M eeeeee (8eM) eee eeeeeeee eeee M8M (8eM), eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8eM), eeeee, eee eeeeee ee MM eee eee eeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee. M eeeeeee eeee ee (8M)-8-eeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (8.8e, 8.8eeee) ee eeeee MMM (88eM) eee eeeeee ee 88°M, eee MMM eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M. M 8.8M eeee ee Me8MeMe8 ee MMM (8.8eM, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeee ee 88°M. Mee eeee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeee eee eeeeeee eee eee eeee eee eeeeeee eee e eeeeeee 88e. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee. ee MM8Me (88eM), eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeeee/Me8M 8:8) ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%); [α]M88 +8.88 (e 8.8, MMMe8).

8-Meeeeeeeeeee-8-eee [8, M8=(MM8)8MMeMe; M8=Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeee ee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (88.88e, 88eeee), eeeee MeMe8 (888ee, 8.8eeee), eee eeeee MeMe (88ee, 8.8eeee) ee e eeeeeee ee MMM (88eM) eee MMM (88eM) eee eeeee eeeeeeee e 8.8M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (88eeee, 88.8eM). Meeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee 8e eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M eee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee 8M MMe (888eM). Meeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee 8M MMe (88eM) eee M8M (8×88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%); ee 888°M/8Meee.

8,88-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me 88°M, e 8.8M eeee ee MeMe(MM8)8MeMe ee MMM (88eM, 88eeee) eee eeeee ee e 8M eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee MMM (888eM, 888eeee) eeeeeeee ee e 8M eeee ee Me8MeMe8 ee MMM (8.8eeee). Mee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee 88°M eeee 8e. Meeeee eee (88e) eee eeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88.88e (88%); ee 88.888.8°M; ee 888888°M/8.8Meee.

8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=(MM8)8Me; M8=e-Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee 88[‌88‌] (8.8eeee) ee MMM (88eM) eee eeeee MeMe (88.8ee, 8.8eeee). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 8°M. 8-Meeeeeeeeee (8.88e, 88eeee) eee e 8.8M eeee ee e-MeMeMe ee MMM (88eM, 88eeee) eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee 88e. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88eee ee 8°M eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee 8M MMe (88eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eee. ee MeMMM8 (88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%); ee 8888°M/88Meee.

8,8-Meeeeeeeeee-8-eee [88, M8=(MM8)8MM=MMe8; M8=Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: Meee-8,8-eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-8,8-eeeee eee eeeee ee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee M: M eeeeeee ee 8-eeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (888ee, 8eeee) eee e 8.88M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (8.8eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeee ee 88°M eee eeee-8,8-eeeee (8.88eM ee 88°M/8eee, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeee MeMe8 (8.8ee, 8.88eeee) ee 88°M, eee eeee eee eeeeeee eee 8e ee 88°M. Mee. ee MM8Me (88eM) eee eeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (88eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (MeMM8) eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeeee) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M 8.88M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (8.88eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeee ee e eeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee (888ee, 8.8eeee), MeMe8 (8.8ee, 88μeee), eee 8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eee (88.8ee, 8.8eeee) ee 8°M eeeee M8. Meeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88eee ee 8°M eeeee M8, e 8.8M eeee ee e-MeMeMe ee MMM (8.88eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eee 8e ee 88°M eeeeee 8M MMe eee eeeee, eeeeeeee ee eee. ee MM8Me (88eM). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (88eM), eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee-eeeee MMMM (MMMe8) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8-Meeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=(MM8)8Me; M8=eMe]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: Meee-8,8-eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-8,8-eeeee eee eeeee ee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee M: M 88-eM Meeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee, 8-eeeeeeeeeee (888ee, 8eeee), eee e 8.8M eeee ee eMeMeMe ee MMM (8.88eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeee ee 88°M. Meee-8,8-eeeee (8.88eM ee 88°M/8eee, 8eeee) eee eeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee. MeMe8 (8.8ee, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee eee eee eeee eee eeeeee ee ee eee eeeeeee eee 8e. Mee. ee MM8Me (88eM) eee eeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee-eeeee MMMM (MMMe8) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee; M8=(MM8)8Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Meeeee M: M eeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeee (888.8ee, 8.8eeee) eee eee(η8-eeeee)eeeeee(MM) (88; 88.8ee, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeee ee 88°M. M 8M eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee MMM (8.8eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M. Meeee eeeeeeee eee 8e, 8M MMe (8eM) eee eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee-eeeee MMMM (MMMe8) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8-Meeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=8-MeM8M8(MM8)8; M8=Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: Meee-8,8-eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-8,8-eeeee eee eeeee ee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee M: M 88-eM Meeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee, 8-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888ee, 8eeee), eee e 8.8M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (8.88eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeee ee 88°M. Meee-8,8-eeeee (88.8eM ee 88°M/8eee) eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee. M eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee Me(eeee)8 (8.8ee, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeee ee 88°M eee eeeeeee eee 8e. Mee. ee MM8Me (88eM) eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (88eM) eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee-eeeee MMMM (MMMe8) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8-Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee (Meeee 8, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

8-Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (888ee, 8.88eeee) eee 8eee% eeeeee eeeeeeee (88ee, 8.888eeee) eeee eeeeeeeee ee MMM (8eM). Mee eeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M eee e 8.8M eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee MMM (888µM, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eeee ee ee. Meeee 88eee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee. ee MM8Me (88eM) eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8 × 88eM), eeeee (MeMM8), eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/Me8M 88:8 ee 8:8) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888ee (88%).

8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 8, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M 8.8M eeee ee MeMeMe ee MMM (8eM, 8.8eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee e eeee eeeeeee eeee MM8Me8 (8.8eM) eee 88eee% eeeeee eeeeeeee (88ee, 8.88eeee) ee 88°M. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeee ee 88°M eee 8eee eee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee ee ee. M eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee M8M, eee MMe (8eM), eee eeeeeeee (88µM, 8.888eeee; eeeeeeee eeeeeeee) eee eeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (888eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee, eeeee (MeMM8), eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88ee (88%; eeeeeeeeee ee MM).

Meeeeeeeeeeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Meeee eee, e eeee eee eeeeeee eeee MMMMMM-MMe (88; 8.8ee, 8μeee) eee e eeeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeee eeeee. Meeee MMM (8.88eM) eee eeeee MMM (8.8eM) eeee eeeee ee eee eeee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (88ee, 8.8eeee) eee eeeeeeee (88μM) ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee 88eee ee eeeeeeee, 8.8M MeMeMe ee MMM (8.88eM, 8.88eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee 8eee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88eee eee eeeeeee eeee MM8Me8. Meeeee eee (8.8e) eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88ee (88%).

Meeeeeeeeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me(MMe)8 (8.88ee, 88.8μeee, 8eee%) eee Meeeeeee (88; 88.8ee, 88μeee, 8eee%) eeee eeeee ee e eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eee eeeeee eeee e eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee. Meeee Me8M (8eM), e 8.88M eeee ee MeMeMe ee Me8M (8.8eM, 8.88eeee), eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee (88.8ee, 8.88eeee) eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88eee eee eeeeeeee eeee 8M ee MMe. Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee (MeMM8), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee) eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88ee (88%).

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee [88, M8=Me; M8=(MM8)8Me]; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M eee, M8-eeeeeee, 888-eM eeee-eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, M8 eeeee, eee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeee MMM (88eM), MeMe (8.88e, 88eeee), MeMe8 (888ee, 8.8eeee), MMMMM (8.88e, 8eeee), eee MeM (888ee, 8eeee). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M eee e 8.8M eeee ee Me(MM8)8MeMe ee MMM (88eM, 88eeee) eee eeeee eeee 88eee. Meeee eee eee ee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88eee eee eeeeeeee eeee 8M ee MMe (888eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8×88eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (MeMM8) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88e (88%).

References