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10.13.1.4.2.1.1.5.6 Variation 6: Introduction of Alkyl Groups

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-110-00001

Joule, J. A.Science of Synthesis Knowledge Updates, (20102270.

Indoles do not react with simple alkyl halides at room temperature; 1H-indole itself reacts with iodomethane in dimethylformamide at about 80°C when the main product is 3-methyl-1H-indole (skatole), but alkylation of indoles with simple alkyl halides is not a useful synthetic process. However, more electrophilic alkylating electrophiles react at lower temperatures, e.g. dimethylallyl bromide reacts at room temperature[‌1102‌] but with 1H-indole itself mixtures are obtained.[‌1103‌] Conditions can be chosen such that 3-substituted indoles will react with this halide to give 3,3-disubstituted 3H-indoles in which one of the 3-substituents is the allyl group[‌715‌] or to give 2-allylated products cleanly.[‌1104‌] Other halides reactive enough to attack indoles at C3 include 2-hydroxybenzyl halides[‌1105‌,‌1106‌] and trityl chloride in hot toluene.[‌1107‌]

Meeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee α-eeeee eeeeeee ee α-eeeeeee eeeeeee (e.e., ee eeee 888, Meeeee 888),[‌8888‌] eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌8888‌] ee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, e.e. 888, eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888),[‌8888‌] eeee eeee eeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeee 888 eeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888) eeee eeeeee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee (888) eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee e 8-eeeeee-eeeee eeeeee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee ee α-Meeeeee Meeeee eeee 8M-Meeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee e 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee ee ee Meeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee α-Meeeee Meeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(8) eee eeee eeeee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, e.e. 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8) ee eeee 888 (Meeeee 888);[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] eeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌] ee, eeeeeeee ee eee, 8-eeee­eee­eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌] eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888, ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888 eeeee eeee eeeeeeee).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee 8-Meeeeeeee-8-ee-8-ee eeee e Meeeee Meeeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
MM8 Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me MMe 88 [‌8888‌]
M MMM MMe 88 [‌8888‌]
Me Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
MM8Me Me M 88 [‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌8888‌] Meeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee M8, eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee 888 eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeee 8M-eeeeee (8) ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee ee Meeee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeee eeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeeee eeeeee e eeeeeeeee(MM) eeee {eee(eeeeeeeeeeee)(η8-eeeee)(η8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, [Me(η8-M8M8)(Me*)(MMMe)8](MM8)8}.[‌8888‌] Meeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee (eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee) eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 88% eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee;[‌8888‌] eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee ee eeee eee ee­eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee(MM) eee­eeee­ee­eeee­eee­eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee M,M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee;[‌8888‌]Meeeee 888 eeeee eeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee eeee eee. Meeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeee Meee(MM) Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M MM8MM=MMe8 88 [‌8888‌]
MM8 MM8MM=MMe8 88 [‌8888‌]
M 88 [‌8888‌]
M e-Me 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me 88 [‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee 8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee (888) eeeee 888; eeee, eee eeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee, ee “eeeeeee” ee ee eeeee eeee (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee 8M-Meeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee eeee e Meeeeee Meeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee α-eeeeeee eeeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌] ee ee eee eeeeee eeee[‌888‌] ee ee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee, e.e. eeeeee 888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌] Meeeeeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee ee M8 ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee[‌8888‌] eeee eeeeeeee ee M8; eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888°M eeee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8M-eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eeee eeee-eeeee, ee eee eeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee ee Meeee eeee eeeeeeeee; eee eeeeeeeee ee 888 eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌‌8888‌] Meeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eee ee 88 eeee ee 88°M eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee.[‌8888‌] eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee(MMM) eeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]eeee-Meeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌8888‌] Meeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeee ee 88°M eeee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee M8.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee Meeeee Meeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee eeee 8M-Meeeee Me Meee Meeeee 8-Meeeeee-8-(8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee Meeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee, eeeee ee 8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee, eeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee, eee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeee M-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeee; eeeeeee, eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeee, Meeeee 888 eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8M-eeeeee (888) eeee 888.[‌888‌,‌8888‌] Meeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee 888; eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeee-8M-eeeeee eeee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meee[‌888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 [‌8888‌]
Me M M 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
M M MM8 8 [‌8888‌]

Meeeee(MMM) eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee 888 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
MM8Me M M 88 [‌8888‌]
M MM8 Me 88 [‌8888‌]

Me eee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee[‌8888‌‌8888‌] ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee 888 eee 888 ee Meeeeee 888[‌8888‌] eee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee ee Meeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee; ee eeeeee eeeeeeee, 8M-eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee,[‌8888‌] ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee.[‌8888‌] Mee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee ee “eeeeee” eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee 8-(8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeee-8-eee (888) eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌] Meeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌8888‌] eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee ee eeee, eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeee 888 ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee Meeee Meeee Meeeee eeee 8M-Meeeee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee Meee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeeeeeee 8-Meeeeeeeee ee ee Meeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeee[‌8888‌]

Meee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee ee eeee ee “Meeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee” eee ee eeeeee ee “Meeeeee–Meeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee” eee eeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeeee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee, ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 8);[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 8);[‌8888‌] eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌] eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eee eee ee eee eeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 88); eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee;[‌8888‌] eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (e.e., M8MMe88M88)[‌8888‌] eee eeeee ee eeee eeee, eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeee eeeeee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ([eeee]MeM8), eeee e eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eeee;[‌8888‌] eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌] eeeee eeeeee ee ee e eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 88). Mee eee ee eeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee M8 ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee; eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee ee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeee 88 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
8 MeMM8Me, MeMM, M8MM8 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM8M(Me)=MMMMMMM8, Me8M, MMMe8, eeeeee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM8MM=MMe8, MeMM, MeMMe, M8M, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 eeeeeee, MeMM, Me8M, 88°M 88 [‌8888‌]
8 eeeeeee eeeee, MeMM, 88 eeee, 88°M 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MMM, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, MM8Me8, eeeeee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MMM, MeMe8, MM8Me8, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM=MMMe, Me(MMe)8•8M8M, MeMM, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 (8-MeMM8M8)MM=MMMe, M8, MeMM, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
88 eeeeee eee, MeMe8•8M8M, MeM, MeMM, ee, eeee M8M=M(Me)MMMe, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
88 MM8=MMMMMe, MeMMM8•MeM8, MeMM, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
88 Me(MeM8)8•8M8M, (M8M)8MMMM, MeMM=M(MM8eMe)8, eeeeee eeeeeeee 88 [‌8888‌]

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee M8 eeeee e eeee Meeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eeeeee 8-(8M-eeeee-8-ee)-8-(eeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-(8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeee ee M8 eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M 88 [‌8888‌]
Me M 88 [‌8888‌]
Me MMe 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me 88 [‌8888‌]
e-Me M 88 [‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee: ee eeeeeeee–eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee;[‌8888‌] eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee (8M,8M)-8-eeeeee-8-eeee-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee[‌8888‌] ee (8M,8M)-8-eeeeee-8-(8-eeeeee-8-eeeee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (888) (Meeeee 888);[‌8888‌]M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee;[‌8888‌] eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee e eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeeee[‌8888‌] ee eeee e eeeeeeee 8,8-eee(8,8-eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888)[‌8888‌] eee eeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee; (M)-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 888 eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee -88°M (Meeeee 888);[‌8888‌] eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeee eeeeee;[‌8888‌] eee eeeeeee, eee eee ee e MMM-eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Me Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee ee Meeeee ee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Me Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee e Meeee Meeeeeeee Meeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Mee ee (M)-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee ee Meeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8-Meeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

Me8 ee (%) Meeee (%) Mee
Me 88 88 [‌8888‌]
8-MeM8M8 88 88 [‌8888‌]
8-MeM8M8 88 88 [‌8888‌]

Meeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeee ee [8-(eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeee-8-ee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee (8M,8M)-8-(8-eeeeee-8M-eeeee-8-eeeeeeee)-8-(eeee-eeeee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee 8M-eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee; eee, eee eeeeeee, 888 ee Meeeee 888.[‌888‌,‌8888‌] 8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeee, eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeee-8M-eeeeee eeee eee 8-(8-eeeeeeeeee) eeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeee eeee 8M-Meeeee[‌888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeee-8M-eeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee Me Meee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeee eee eeee e eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Meee ee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee: Meeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeee e eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 8).[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 8).[‌8888‌] Meeeeeee eeee eee ee eeee ee e eeeeeee-eeee eeeeee ee 88°M eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌] Meeeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee 8-β-M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeee ee eeeeeee.[‌8888‌] Meeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 888°M,[‌8888‌] eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 888°M ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, eeeee 8).[‌8888‌]

Meeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee Meeeee ee Meeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌‌8888‌]

Meeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
8 MeMMM=M(MM8Me)MM8, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 eeeeee eee, MeMe8•8M8M, MeM, ee, eeee (M)-M8MMM=MMMM8Me 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM=MMMM8, M8, Me8M, ee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 (8-M8MM8M8)MM=MMMM8, M8M, eeeeeeeee, 888°M 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM=MMMM8, Me(MMe)8, eeeeee eeeeeeee 88 [‌8888‌]
8 MeMM8(Me)M=MMM, Me8MM8, MM8Me8, ee 88 [‌8888‌]

Meeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeee)–eeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee 8 ee -88°M (Meeee 88, eeeee 8),[‌8888‌,‌8888‌] eee eee ee e eeeeee MMMMM-eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee -88°M,[‌8888‌] e eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee–eeeeeeeeeee–eeeeee eeeeeee eeee 8,8,8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee,[‌8888‌] eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee Meeeeee’e eeee 888 eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee’e eeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee, eeeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee ee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee’e Meee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee: eeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee M-eeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88°M,[‌8888‌] eee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee e eeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeeee ee -88°M (Meeee 88, eeeee 88),[‌8888‌] eeeeee ee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeee. M eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee e eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee (888) ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeee, eeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8888); eeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee 8888 ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee ee Meeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee ee M,M-eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8888) eeee 8M-eeeeee (8) ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee 8-(8-eeeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeeee (8888);[‌888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌] ee eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8888 ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee e Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888). 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88% eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee M,M-Meeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee Meee[‌888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (8888) ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee (8888) ee eee eeeeeee eeeee, eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee 8888, eeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee 8888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeee-8M-eeeeee eeee Meeeee 8-Meeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 8888 ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888); eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee 8888 eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 8888.[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee ee Meeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeee 888 eeeee eeee ee eee 8-eeee-8-(eeeee-8-ee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8888 eeee ee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee 8888.[‌8888‌] M eee-eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee; ee eeeee eeeeee eeee e 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeee eee ee ee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee.[‌8888‌] Me e eeee ee eeeee ee eee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee 8888 (Meeeee 888).

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 888

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (eeee/eee) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M Me 8:8 88 [‌8888‌]
M M M Me 8:8 88 [‌8888‌]
MMe M M Me 88:88 88 [‌8888‌]
M M Me Me 88:88 88 [‌8888‌]
M Me M Me e 88 [‌8888‌]

e Meeee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee Meeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee 8M-eeeeee (8) ee M8 ee eeee 8888 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌] Meeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee M—M eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee ee M8 ee eee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeeee ee M8, eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeee.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee ee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee eeee 8- ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee M8 ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee eee eeeee ee eee Meeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeeee eeee; Meeeee 888 eeeee eee eeeeeee 8888 eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (8888) eee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee (888).[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee 8-Meeeee-8M-eeeeee eeee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meee[‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Me eee eeeeeeee ee eeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 8888 eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee eeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (e.e., 8888). Meee, eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8888 eeee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8888) eeeeeeeee ee eeee,[‌8888‌] eeee eeeeeeeee,[‌888‌,‌8888‌] eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeeee 8888 (Meeeee 888).

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌8888‌,‌8888‌]

Meeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee 8888 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8888 eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeee, eeeee 8.8 eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeee 8888 ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee M8 (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌8888‌]

α-Meeeee 8888 eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee(MMM) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee; e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeee ee Meeeee eeee Meeeee[‌8888‌]

Me eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee M-eeeeee, e eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee, ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, e.e. 8888, eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee ee Meeeee 888.[‌8888‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 888 Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee eee M-Meeeee[‌8888‌]

Mee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee 8888 eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8) (ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee 8888), eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 888).[‌8888‌]

Meeeee 888 8-Meeeeeeeeeee ee 8M-Meeeee eeee e Meeeeee[‌8888‌]

Meeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee M8 eee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee.[‌8888‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee 8-(8-eee-8-eeeeeeeeee-8-eeee)-8M-eeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

8-(8-Meeeeeeee-8-eeee)-8M-eeeeee (888, M8 = M; M8 = MM8MM=MMe8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me e eeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8 eeeee), Me(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), eee MMMM (8 eeeee) ee eeeee eeeeeee (ee. 8 eM eee eeee eeeeee) eee eeeee eMe8MMe (8.8 eeeee) ee ee eeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88 eee ee ee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeee-8-eee (8 eeeee). Meee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee MMM, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee. ee MM8Me, eeeeeee eeee M8M, eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee M8M, eeeee (Me8MM8), eee eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88%.

Meeeee 8-Meeeeee-8-(8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeeee (888); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (8; 8.8 e, 88 eeee) eee eeeeee eeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee (8.8 e, 88.8 eeee) eeee eeeeeeeee ee MMe8 (MMMMMMM:eeeee) eeee MeMe8 (8.8 eM, 88.8 eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee -8°M eeee 88 eee. Meeee e eeeeeee 88 eee ee -8°M, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88% ee MeMMM8 (888 eM) eee MMMe8 (888 eM). Meeeeeeeee, eeee ee-eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeee MMMe8 (88 eM), eeeeee (MeMM8), eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, Me8M/eeeeeeeee eeeee) ee eeee eeeeeeeee 8M-eeeeee (8.8 e) eee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%); ee 88°M.

8-Meeee-8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee (8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeee, 888); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8.88 e, 8.88 eeee) eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8M-eeeeee (888; 8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) ee 888°M. Meeee 8 e, eee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeee M8M (88 eM). Meeeeeee ee MMM (8 e) eeeeeeeee eee eeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe. Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee) ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee MeMM/ee MM8/MMMe8 eeee 8-eeeee-8M-eeeeee (888; 8.88 e) eee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee e eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%); ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee) 888–888°M (eee).

M-8-[8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)eeeeee]-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888, M8 = M8 = M8 = M); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me e eeeeeee eeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8 eeee) ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8 eM) eeee eeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (888, M8 = M; 8 eeee) eee MeMe8 (8.8 eeee). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee 8.8 e. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee M8M eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8 × 88 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (Me8MM8) eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MeMMe/eeeeee 8:8) ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee; eeeee: 88%.

8-(8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeee-8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee (88.8 e, 8.8 eee) eee eeeeeeeeeeee (88.8 e, 8.88 eee) eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee MeMM (888 eM) eee 8.88 M M8MM8 (888 eM) eee 88 eee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeee ee eee (8.8 M) eee ee MM8 (888 eM) eee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe. Mee MeMMe eeeee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee; eeeee: 8.8 e (88%).

8-[8-(8-Meeeee-8M-eeeee-8-ee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me8M (8.8 e, 88 eeee) eee eeeee ee 8-(8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeee (8.88 e, 88 eeee) eee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee (8.8 e, 88 eeee) ee eeeee MMMe8 (888 eM) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee 8.8 e. Meeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, MeMM/M8M (8:8) eee eeeee eee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (MeMM); eeeee: 8.8 e (88%); ee 888–888°M.

Meeeee 8-(8-Meeeeeeee-8-eeee)-8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me eeeeee 8M-eeeeee-8-eeeeeee (8.88 e, 8 eeee) ee e eeeeeee ee MeMM, MeMMe, eee M8M, 8-eeeee-8-eeeeeeeee-8-eee (8.88 e, 8 eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee ee. Meeee e eeeeeee 8 e, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee M8M (888 eM) eee Me8M eee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee M8M eee eee. ee MeMMM8 eee eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MeMMe 8:8) eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.888 e (88%).

8M-Meeeee-8-eeeeeee (Meeeeeeeee; Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

MMMMMMM:Meeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, ee eee, eeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee ee e eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee e eeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8.88 e, 88 eeee) ee MeMM/Me8M (8:8; 88 eM) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88°M eee 88 e. Meeee e eeeeeee 88 e ee ee, M8M eee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M. Mee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee [eeeeeee, eeeeeee (MMMMMMM:eeeeeeeeee)] ee eeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee (8.88 e), eee eeee eeeeeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%).

8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (888 ee, 8 eeee) eee eeeeeee eeeee (888 ee, 8 eeee) eeeeeeeee ee MeMM (8 eM) ee e Meeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee eeeeee ee 88°M eeeee 88 eeee eee 88 e. Meeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MeMMe 8:8) eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 888 ee (88%); ee 888–888.8°M.

8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)eeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (8.8 e, 8.88 eeee) eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee (8.8 e, 8.8 eeee) eeeeeeeee ee MM8Me8 (88 eM) eeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee (8.8 e) eee 8 e. Meeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee eeeee/eeeeeee), eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.8 e (88%); ee 88–88°M.

8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)eeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

M eeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8 eeee), eeeeee eeeee eeeeee (8 eeee), eee MeMe8 (88 eee%) ee MM8Me8 (88 eM) eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 8 e. Meeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee M8M (88 eM) eee eeeeeeeee eeee MM8Me8 (8 × 88 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee (Me8MM8), eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MeMMe/eeeeee 8:8) ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88%; ee 88–88°M.

8-(8-Meeeee-8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8-Meeeee-8M-eeeeee (8.88 e, 88 eeee) eee eeee-8-ee-8-eee (888 eM, 8.88 eeee) eeeeeeeee ee MeMM (8 eM) eeee eeeeeee eeee Me(MMe)8•8M8M (88 ee, 8.888 eeee) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 88 e. Mee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee (MeMMe/eeeeee) eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%).

8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)-8-(8-eeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

M eeeeeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8.888 e, 8 eeee), 8-eeeeee-8-(8-eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee-8-ee-8-eee (8.888 e, 8 eeee), M8 (8.888 e, 8.8 eeee), eee eeeee MeMM (8 eM) eee eeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeee ee ee eee 8 e. Meeee eeeeeeee eee 8 e, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eeee M8M (8 × 88 eM) eee eeee MeMM (8 × 8.8 eM). Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (MeMM) ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.888 e (88%); ee 888–888°M.

8-(8M-Meeee-8-eeeeeeee)eeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Meeeee eee (8.888 e) eee eeeee ee e eeeeeee ee MeMe8•8M8M (8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) eee MeM (8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) ee MeMM (8 eM), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee. Mee MeMM eee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee 8M-eeeeee (8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) eee 8-eeeeeeeee-8-ee-8-eee (8.888 e, 8.88 eeee). Mee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee ee ee eee 8.8 e. Meeee eeeeeeee ee MM8Me8, eee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee e eeeee eee ee Meeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeeee/MeMMe 8:8) ee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.888 e (88%).

8-(8-Meeee-8M-eeeee-8-ee)eeeeee-8-eee (Meeee 88, Meeee 88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me e eeeeeee ee 8-eeeee-8M-eeeeee (8 eeee) eee eeee-8-ee-8-eee (8 eeee) ee MeMM (8 eM) eee eeeee MeMMM8•MeM8 (88 ee), eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee (888–888 eeee, 88 e) ee e eeee ee MeMMM8•M8M (8.88 e) ee M8M (88 eM) eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee ee e eee eeeee eee 8.8 e ee eeee e eeee-eeeeeee eeeee eeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee ee ee eeee ee 888°M eee 88 e eeeee ee eee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee, eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee MMM. Meeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MeMMe) ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee ee e eeeee; eeeee: 88%.

Meeeeeeee 8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)-8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me e Meeeeee eeee eee eeeee Me(MeM8)8•8M8M (8.88 eeeee), eeeeeeee ee (M)-8,8,8-eeee(8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee)eeeeeee (8.88 eeeee) ee eeeeeee/Me8M (8:8) eeeee M8. Mee eeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 8 e eee eeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee 8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeee (8.8 eeeee) eee 8,8,8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee (8.8 eeeee) eeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee Me eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee 8.888 eee·eM-8. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 88 eee, eeee eeeeee ee -88°M eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee 88 eee eeeeee 8M-eeeeee (8.8 eeeee) eee eeeee. Meeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (MMM), eee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MM8Me8/eeeeeeeee eeeee 8:8 eeee MM8Me8) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88%; 88% ee.

8-(8-Meeeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeeee (888); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌888‌]

Me e 8.8 M eeee ee 8M-eeeeee (8) ee eeeeeee (MMMMMMM:eeeeeeeeee) eee eeeee e 88% eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (8 eeeee) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee M8. Meeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeee/eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee; eeeee: 88%.

Meeeee 8-(8-Meeeee-8M-eeeee-8-ee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8-Meeeee-8M-eeeeee (88.8 e, 8.88 eee) eee eeeeee 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (88.8 e, 8.8 eee) eeee eeeee eeeee M8 eee eeee ee ee eee 88 e. Meeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee Me8M/eeeeee (8:8) eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88.8 e (88%); ee 888–888°M.

Meeeee 8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Meeeee eee (8 e) eee eeeee ee e eeeeeee ee MeMe8•8M8M (88.8 e, 8 eeee) eee MeM (8.888 e, 8 eeee) ee MeMM (888 eM), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee. Mee MeMM eee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee ee ee. Me eee MeMe8•8M8M/MeM eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee (8.8 e) eeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeee 8M-eeeeee (8.8 e, 8.88 eeee) eee (M)-eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (8.8 e, 8.88 eeee). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 8 e. Meeee eeeeeeee ee Me8M (888 eM), eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee e eeeee eee ee Meeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MeMMe/eeeeeee 8:8) ee eeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%).

8-(8-Meeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (8.8 eeee) eee eeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (8.8 eeee) ee Me8M (8.8 eM) eeeee eeee M8 (8.8 eeee) ee ee. Meeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee M8M, eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeee ee Me8M8M8 (8 × 88 eM), eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MM8Me8 (8 × 88 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eee M8M eee eeeee (Me8MM8). Meeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee; eeeee: 88%.

8-Meeeee-8-[8-eeeee-8-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeee]-8M-eeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

M eeeeee 88-eM eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee e eeee ee (M)-8-eeeee-8-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee (8.8 eeee) eee 8-eeeeee-8M-eeeeee (8.8 eeee) ee eeeeeeeee M8M (8 eM) eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeee (MMM Me., Meeeeeee Meeeee, eeeeee-eeee eeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeeee ee 888°M eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee ee ee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee MeMMe eee M8M. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee (MeMM8) eee, eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee/MeMMe) ee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee; eeeee: 888 ee (88%); ee 888–888°M.

(M)-8-(8-Meeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me e eeeee Meeeeee eeee eeee eeeee Me(MMe)8 (88.8 ee, 8.88 eeee) eee (8M,8′M)-8,8′-(eeeeeee-8,8-eeee)eee(8-eeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee) (88 ee, 8.88 eeee) eeeee M8, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (8 eM). Mee eeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 8 e eeeee M8, eee (M)-(8-eeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (888 ee, 8.8 eeee) eee eeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 8°M eee eeeeeee eee 88 eee eeeeee 8M-eeeeee (88 ee, 8.8 eeee) eee eeeee. Meeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MeMMe/eeeeeeeee eeeee 8:8) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee; eeeee: 888 ee (88%); 88% ee; [α]M88 +88.8 (e 8.8, MM8Me8).

8-(8M-Meeee-8-ee)eeeeee-8,8-eeeee 8-Meeee (Meeee 88, Meeee 8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

Me 8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeee 8-eeeee (8.88 e, 8 eeee) eee 8M-eeeeee (8.88 e, 88 eeee) ee eeeee MM8Me8 (88 eM), Me8MM8 (8.8 e, 88 eeee) eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee 88 e. Meeeeeeeee eeeeeee Meeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (MMMe8/MeMMe 8:8), eee eeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%); ee 888–888°M.

M-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8888); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (8; 8.88 e, 88 eeee) eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee (8.8 e, 88 eeee) eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee MeMM (8 eM) eee Me8M (8 eM) ee 88°M eee 88 eee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee Me8M eee 88% ee MeMM. Mee Me8M eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee ee MeMM, eeee M8M. Me eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee e eee eeeeee ee Me8M8M8 eeee eeeee eee eeee, eeee eeeeeee ee eee, eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee MMe. Me eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee 88 eM, eee eeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeee eee eee eeee ee ee. 8°M eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeee M8M, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (MeMM/M8M) ee eeee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee; eeeee: 8.88 e (88%); ee 888–888°M.

8-(8-Meeeeeeeee)-8M-eeeeee (8888); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌8888‌]

8M-Meeeee (8; 8.88 e, 88 eeee) eee M,M-eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (8888; 8.8 e, 88 eeee) eeee eeeeeeeee ee MMM (88 eM) ee eee-eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee M8. Meeee 88 eee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee ee eee eeeee ee eee eeeee (888 eM) eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MeMMe (8 × 888 eee eeee 8 × 888 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee ee MeMMM8 (888 eM) eee eeee eeeee (888 eM), eeeee (Me8MM8), eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (MeMM); eeeee: 8.8 e (88%); ee 888°M.

References