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10.1 Benzo[b]furans

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-110-00529

Kwiecień, H.Science of Synthesis Knowledge Updates, (2014451.

General Introduction

Benzo[b]furan (1), as the systematic name implies, consists of a benzene nucleus annulated to the (“b”) 2,3-bond of a furan ring (Scheme 1). This ring system has also been called 1-benzofuran, benzofuran, and 2,3-benzofuran. Another name “coumarone”, which was previously used for benzo[b]furan, originates from an early synthesis of the compound from coumarin via coumarilic acid [benzo[b]furan-2-carboxylic acid (2)]. Hence, 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]furan (3) was named “coumaran” and the related ketone benzo[b]furan-3(2H)-one (4) as “coumaranone”. In accordance with IUPAC rules, these trivial names used over the years for benzo[b]furan and its derivatives are now regarded as obsolete.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eee Meeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeee ee Meeeee–Meee, Mee. M 8e8, ee 88–888 eee ee eee eeeeeeee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌8‌] eee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee,[‌8‌‌8‌] eee eeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌]

Mee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeeee, eeeee[e]eeeee (8), ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeee eeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eee eee, eeeeeeeeee ee 888–888 °M, ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee ee-eeeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeeee eeeeee.[‌8‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee, eeeeee, eee eeeeeee.[‌8‌] Meee eeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeee (8) eee eee 8-eeeee eee 8-eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (8), eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (8, M = M), eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8, M = Me), eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (8, M = M), eee β-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee β-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee (8) (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeee (8) ee eee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeee eee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee 8888e ee eeee, e eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌] Me eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, e eee-eeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (8) eee eeee eeeeeeeee. Me eeee, eeeeeeeeeee (8) ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee (8).[‌88‌] Meeee[e]eeeee (8) ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. M eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee­ee[e]eeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee-Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeee eeee, eeeee eee eeee e eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee) 8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeee ee Meeee eee Meeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 8 eee 88 (Meeeee 8) eeeeeee eeee Meeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee 88 eee eeeeeee M (88) eeee Meeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeee-eeee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeee ee 88 eeeeeeeee eeee Meeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee’e eeeeeee).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee ee Meeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee-Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8-eeee- eee 8-eeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeeee eeee ee 88 eee 88 eee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeee ee eee eeeeeeeee–eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee­eeeeeee 8-eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeeee eeee ee 88, eeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee ee MMM ee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee, eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeee ee 88 eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee M8 eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee 88β-eeeeeee­eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee 88 eee eee eeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee’e eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeee (88), e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee α-eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee­eeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeee Meeee[e]eeeee-Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeee M eeee 8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeee-8-eee eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee MM eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] 8-Meeeeeeee[e]eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee Meeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee ee eee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-MM eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee- eee eee(eeeee[e]eeeee) eeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeee (e.e., 88, Meeeee 8)[‌88‌] eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeee, 8,8-eee[eeeee[e]eeeee-8-ee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeeee eee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee, eeeee-eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee[e]ee­eee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee ee Me8+, Me8+, eee Me8+.[‌88‌,‌88‌] M eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee(M), eeeee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] M eee eeeeeeeeee [eee(8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee)eeeee]eeeee[e]eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] 8-Meeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeee (8), e eeeeeeeee, eeee, eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeee eeeee ee 888.8 °M,[‌88‌] ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meøeeeee ee Meeee eeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee ee 888 °M.[‌88‌] Meeee[e]eeeee, ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeeeee 88π-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee. Meeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee (MMMM).[‌88‌] Mee MMMM eeeeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee eee eeeeee eee eeee eee eeeeeee (–8.8) eee eeeee (–8.8) eeeee, eee eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee MMMM eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee (–88.8) eee eeeee (–8.8) eeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee (88) (Meeeee 8). Meeee, eeeee[e]eeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee π-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eee MMMM Meeeee eee Meeee[e]- eee Meeee[e]eeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee (8) eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee[‌88‌] eee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee (8), eeeeeee, eee eeeee eee 88.88, 88.8, eee 8.88 eeee·eee−8, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee (MMM) eee eeeee[e]eeeee (8), eeeeeee, eeeee[e]eeeee (88), eee eeeee eee 8.888, 8.888, 8.888, eee 8.888, eeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeee ee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee. Mee eeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee π-eeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee ee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee 8 > 8 eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeee[e]eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee. Me eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee 88 eee 88 eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee, eeeee e eeeeee σ-eeeeeeee eee e eeeeee π-eeeee (eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee), eeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee π-eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eee­ee[e]eeeee, eee 8-eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeee ee eee Meeeeeeeee Meeeee eee Meeee[e]eeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee ee eee 8-eeeeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeeeeee, ee eeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌8‌,‌8‌] Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee (8) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee, eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee,[‌8‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee(MM) eeeee eeeee e eeeeeee ee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeeee[e]eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee Meeeeee–Meeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee–eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeee, eee 8,8-eeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee ee e eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeee, eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee, eeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee[e]ee­eee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eee eeeee eeee, eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee; eeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee[e]eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8- eee 8-eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8- eee 8-eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeee[e]ee­eeee 88 eeeeeeeee ee Meeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeee 88 (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee, ee eeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eee eeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meee[‌88‌]

Meeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee M—M eeeee eeee M—eeeeeee eee M—eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee, ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee eeee M—M eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee eee ee eeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee[e]eeeee (8), eeeeeee, eee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eeee 8 eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee (88) (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee ee Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eeee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eee M8=M8 eeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeee eeeee; eeeeeee, ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee, eee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee [8 + 8] eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee. Me eee eeeee eeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee [8 + 8] eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eee M8=M8 eeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeee (88) eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeee 88. Mee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee [8 + 8] Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeeee ee ee eee eeee eeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeeee, eeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee eee eeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee M-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeee eeee eeeeee(MMMM) eeeee eeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee eeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee­ee­eeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee) eee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeee[e]eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeeeeee (e.e., 8 eee 88) (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee Meeee ee Meeee[e]eeeeeeeee

Meeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee e eeeeee M-eeeeeeeeee eeeee, e.e. eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee-8-eee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee[e]eeeee-8-ee ee e eeeeeeee eeee (eMe 8.88) eeee 8M-eeeee-8-ee (eMe 88.88).[‌88‌] Meeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee-8(8M)-eee (88, M = M),[‌88‌] eeeee[e]eeeee-8(8M)eee (88, M = M),[‌88‌] eee eeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeeeeeeeee 88 eee 88 (M = M) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee 88 eee 88 eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). (Meeee[e]eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeee).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Mee Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eee Meeee[e]eeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee), eee eeeee eee eeee ee eeee eeeeee ee ee eeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee Meeee ee eee Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeee[e]eeeee-8(8M)-eee eeeee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, ee eeeee ee Meeeee 88, eee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee e 8-Meeeeeeeeee Meeee[e]eeeee-8(8M)-eee ee Meeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeee–Meeeee–Meeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeee-8(8M)-eee (8) ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee (e.e., 88) eee eeeeeee (e.e., 88) eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee, eee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee ee Meeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee, eeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee eeee (8) eee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, ee 8888.[‌8‌] Meeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeee eeee (8) eee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌] Mee eeee ee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee eeee[‌88‌] ee eee 8-eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee (8) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] M eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee Meeee[e]eeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeee eeee Meeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeee ee ee Meee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeee[e]eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeee eeeeeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee 8-(8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeee[e]eeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee; eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeee[e]eeeeee Meeee e Meee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 eeeee MMM eeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee (8).[‌88‌] M eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee M8 eee M8 ee 8.8 Me eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee eee 88.8 Me eee M8 eee M8 eee 8.8 Me eee M8 eee M8 eeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 8M eee 88M MMM Meeeeeee Meeeee eee Meeee[e]eeeee ee 888 MMe ee Meeeeeeeee-e[‌88‌]

Mee MM eeeeeeee (MMe) ee eeeee[e]eeeee (8) eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ν̃: 8888, 8888 (M=M), 888, 888, 8888 (MM), 8888 (M—M eee M—M), 8888 (eeee eeee), 8888, 8888 ee−8 (MM).[‌88‌] Mee MM eeeeeeeeee (MeMM) eee λeee (eee ε): 888 (88.8), 888, (8.8), 888 ee (8.8) (eee Meeeee–Meee, Mee. M 8e8, ee 88–888).

Meeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee[e]eeeee (8) eeeeeeeee ee MMM (Meeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeee): eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee.