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16.16.5 Phenazines (Update 2020)

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-116-01265

Ambhaikar, N. B.Science of Synthesis Knowledge Updates, (20202193.

General Introduction

Phenazines are an interesting class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles present in many natural products that exhibit biological activities (see HoubenWeyl, Vol. E 9b/2, pp 266). This account includes the construction of phenazines through some newer practical synthetic methods that have been reported since the first review on phenazines in Science of Synthesis (Section 16.16). Several synthetic methods have already been described in the earlier chapter on phenazines, including some very basic and landmark methodologies. For the most part, standard ways of synthesizing phenazine and its derivatives have employed traditional approaches or their variations along the lines of the Wohl–Aue reaction and the Beirut reaction. The current account focuses on modern synthetic tools to construct the phenazine core shown in Scheme 1. It includes some of the newer approaches, with recent key methods that have been developed between 2004 and 2019.[‌1‌‌6‌] Some of these new approaches rely on recent methodologies involving organometallic, electrochemical, and single-electron transfer reactions.

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