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2.4.1.1.1.2 Using Dialkoxyboranes

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-208-00321

Murata, M.Science of Synthesis: Cross Coupling and Heck-Type Reactions, (20132449.

In 1997, Murata and Masuda demonstrated that pinacolborane (2) acts as a boron source in the coupling with aryl—X electrophiles in the presence of a palladium catalyst and triethylamine.[‌10‌,‌33‌] Pinacolborane (2) is now recognized as an atom-economical alternative to tetraalkoxydiborons in the catalytic borylation. The reaction tolerates a number of functionalities such as carbonyl, cyano, and nitro groups, but often suffers from formation of arene byproducts resulting from partial reduction of C—X bonds. The presence of triethylamine plays a crucial role in not only preventing the formation of undesired dehalogenated arenes but also facilitating the borylation. The yields are not significantly influenced by the choice of solvent.

Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeeeee ee Meeee 8. Mee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeee-, eeee-, eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeee eee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee 88. [8,8′-Mee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) [MeMe8(eeee)] eee eeeeeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(MM) [MeMe8(MMe8)8] eee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeeeee 8–8).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88, MeMeeeMeee)[‌88‌] ee eee[8-(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee] eeeee (88, MMMeeee)[‌88‌] ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeeeee 8 eee 8, eeeeeeeeeeee);[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeee (eeeeeee 8, 8, eee 8).[‌88‌‌88‌] Mee eee ee eee[8-(ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee] eeeee (88, e-MeMMMeeee) ee e eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeeeee 88 eee 88) ee eeeee,eeeee′-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (eeeee 88) eee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee (eeeee 88) eeee eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meee, eee eee ee MMeee (8) eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeeeee 88–88), eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee (eeeeeee 88 eee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee 88 eeee eee eee ee 8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeee 8, eeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee [8,8-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) [MeMe8(eeee)][‌88‌] eee eeeeee(M) eeeeee[‌88‌] eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeee 8.

Meeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meee Meeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeee Me8 M Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
8 8-MeMM8M8 M MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-M8MM8M8 M MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-Mee M MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-Me8MM8M8 Me MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-MeM8MM8M8 Me MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-M8MM8M8 Me Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (88 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-M8MM8M8 Me Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (88 eee%) 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-MeMM8M8 Me Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (88 eee%) 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8 8-M8MM8M8 Me Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (88 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e <8 [‌88‌]
88 8-M8MM8M8 Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
88 8-MeM8M8 Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%) 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
88 8,8,8-eMe8M8M8 Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
88 8-MeMM8M8 Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
88 8-MeM8MM8M8 Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e 88e [‌88‌]
88 Mee Me MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 8 (8 eee%) 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
88 8-MeMM8M8 Me MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 8 (88 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e 88e [‌88‌]
88 8,8-Me8M8M8 Me MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 8 (88 eee%) 888 °M, 88 e 88e [‌88‌]

e Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee MMMM (8 eeeee).

e Me8M eee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeee.

Meee eeeeeeeeee 88 eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8) ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee 8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Mee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeee [8,8′-eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) ee 8,8-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 (M8 = MM8) eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 [M8 = (MM8)8MM8] eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee ee -eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8) ee eee eeeeeeee ee 8 eee% ee eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(8) eee 8,8′-eee(ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee (88, eeeee) eee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee ee Meee Meeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 Me8 Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
MM8 8-MeM8MM8M8 MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%), 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 8-MeMM8M8 MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%), 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8MM8 8-MeMM8M8 MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%), 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MMM8M8 Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MeM8M8 Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MeM8MM8M8 Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee 8-M8MM8M8 Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-M8MM8M8 8-MeM8M8 Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8), ee eeeee ee Meeeee 8, eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee ee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee(8) eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeee 88. Meeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee 88, σ-eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee Me—eeee eeee ee 88 eee eee M—M eeee ee 8 eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee 88, ee eeeee eee eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee 88. Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eee, eeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee(8) eeeeeee eeee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeee eeee, eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee 88 ee eeee ee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeeee(8). Meeeeeeeee eeeee 88, ee eeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee Meeee eee Meeeeeeeee ee Meee—M Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8) eee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee Meeee 8; eeeeeee, eeeee ee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee. Me eeeee ee Meeee 8, eee eeeeeeee eeee 8 eeeeeeeee eeeee,[‌88‌,‌88‌] eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee 8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee 88),[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eeeee) eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee ee eeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee(eeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (8), eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee (eee Meeeeee 8.8.8.8.8.8, Meeee 8). Me eee eeeee eeee, ee eeee eeeee eeeee ee Meeee 8, 8 ee e eeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee 8.[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeee 8 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee(eee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee(8) eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeee ee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeee 8 Meeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee ee Meee—M eee Meeeeee—M Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
MeMe8(eeee) (8.8 eee%), 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, 8,8-eeeeeee, 88 °M, 88–88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe8)8 (8 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeee, 88–888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (88 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me eeeee (8 eee%), Me8M, MeMM, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me8(eee)8 (8 eee%), 8 (8 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me{M(e-Me)8}8 (8 eee%), Me8M, MMM, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me{M(e-Me)8}8 (8 eee%), Me8M, MMM, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%), Me8M, 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee, 8.8 e eeeeee [‌88‌]

e M eeeee eeeeee ee 8 eee Me8M (>88 eeeee) eeee eeee.

Mee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee-eee eeeeeeeeee/Meeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 8 (88) ee eeeee ee Meeeee 8.[‌88‌] Mee M-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (8) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88; eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Me eeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eee eee-eee eeeeeeeeee/Meeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee 8, eee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeee Meeeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee ee e Meeeee eee e Meeeeeeeee–Meeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeeee (8) ee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee—M eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88), eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌] Me ee eeeeeeeeee eeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeee, eeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee[8-(ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee] eeeee (88) eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeee eeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88) ee eeeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeee 88 eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee[‌88‌] eee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌] ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. [8,8-Meeeeeeeeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee]eeeeee(MM) ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee, eee eee eeee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeee(8)/88 eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee ee Meee—M Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

Me8 M Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
8-MMM8M8 M MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), eeeeeee, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), eeeeeee, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Mee M MeMe8(MMMe)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), eeeeeee, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-Me8MM8M8 Me MeMe8(MMe8)8 (8 eee%), eeeeeee, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 Me Me8(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8MM8M8 Me MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%), MMMM (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-M8MM8M8 Me MeMe8(eeee) (8 eee%), MMMM (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 MMM8Me Me(eee)8 (8 eee%), 88 (8 eee%), MMMM (8.8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (e.e., 88) eee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌] ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee,[‌88‌] eeeeeeeee eeee(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee 88. Mee eeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee 88. Mee eeee(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee 88 ee eeee/eeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee Meeee eee Meeeeeeeee ee Meee—M Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeee e (Meeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

Me8 M Meeee (%) Mee
8-MeMM8M8 M 88e [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 Me 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee Me 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee MMe 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 MMe 88 [‌88‌]
8-MMM8M8 MMe 88 [‌88‌]

e 8 eee% ee MeMe8 eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee Me8(eee)8.

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

8-[8-Meeeeee-8-eeeeee-8-(8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeee-8-ee)eeeeee]eeeeeeeeeeee (88); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: 8,8,8,8-Meeeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeee.

Me e eeee ee 8-(8-eeee-8-eeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeee (88; 8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) ee eeeee 8,8-eeeeeee (88 eM) eeee eeeee 8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (8; 8.88 eM, 88.8 eeee) eee Me8M (8.88 eM, 88.8 eeee). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eee eeee–eeeeee eeeeeee. Me(MMe)8 (88 ee, 8.88 eeee) eee eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (88; 888 ee, 8.88 eeee) eeee eeeee ee eee eeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee 8 e ee 888 °M. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee. ee MM8Me (88 eM) ee 8 °M eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee MM8Me8 (8 × 888 eM). Meeee eeeeee (Me8MM8) eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MeMMe/eeeeee 8:88) ee eeee e eeeee eeeee; eeeee: 8.888 e (88%).

8-(8M-Meeeeee[8,8-e]eeeeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeee-8-eeeee (88):[‌88‌]

M eeee ee Me(MMe8)8 (88 ee, 8.88 eeee) eee eeee-eeeee 8-eeee-8M-eeeeeee[8,8-e]eeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeee (88; 888 ee, 8.88 eeee) ee eeeee 8,8-eeeeeee (8 eM) eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee. Me8M (8.88 eM, 88.8 eeee) eee 8,8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (8; 8.88 eM, 8.88 eeee) eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88 °M eeee eeeeeeee eee 8 e. Meee, eeeee eeeeeee ee ee, MeMM (8 eM), 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eeeee (88; 888 ee, 8.88 eeee), eee Me8MM8 (888 ee, 8.88 eeee) eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Meeee eeeeeeee ee 888 °M eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee Meeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, MM8Me8/MeMM/ee MM8 888:8:8 ee 888:8:8 eeeeeeee). Mee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee MM8Me8 (eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee) ee eeee e eeee eeeeee eeeee; eeeee: 888 ee (88%).

8-Meee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee 88; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: 8,8,8-Meeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeee.

Me e eeeeeeee, MeMe8(MMMe)8 (88 µeee) eee eee[8-(ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee] eeeee (88; 88 µeee) eeee eeeeee ee e eeeee-eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (8 eM). Meeee eeeeeeee eee 88 eee, Me8M (8.8 eeee), eee eeee eeeeee 88 (M = M; 8.88 eeee), eee 8,8,8-eeeeeeeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee (88; 8.88 eeee) eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeee eee eeeeee eeee e eee eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee ee 88 °M eee 88 e. Meeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeee Me8M, eeeeee eeee eeeee, eee eeeee (Me8MM8). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, Me8M/eeeeee).

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meee (88, Me8 = 8-MeMM8M8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

MMMMMMM: (Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeee.

M eeeeeee ee Me8M (8.888 e, 8.8 eeee), 8-eeeeeeeeeee (8.888 e, 8.8 eeee), eee Me8M (8.88 eM, 88.8 eeee) eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee. MeMe8 (8.888 e, 8.88 eeee) eee eeee eeeee. Meeee eeeeeeee ee ee eee 88 eee, e 8 M eeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee (88; 8 eM, 8 eeee) ee MMM eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee 88 e. Meeee eeeeeee ee 8 °M, MeMM (8 eM) eee eeeee (MMMMMMM: eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee). Meeee eeeeeeee eee 88 eee, eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee e eeeee eeeee. Meee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 8 M MeMM (8 eM) eee eee eeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee (8 × 88 eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeee ee 8 °M, eeeeeeeee ee eM ≤8 eeee eeeee MMe, eee eeeeeeeee eeee Me8M (8 × 88 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee (MeMM8) eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee; eeeee: 88%.

References


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