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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-210-00157

Zefirov, N. S.; Matveeva, E. D.; Shuvalov, M. V.Science of Synthesis: Multicomponent Reactions, (20141274.

The standard procedure usually involves the reaction of equimolar quantities of all components, either with or without an additional solvent. Usually, benzene, toluene, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, dichloromethane, or tetrahydrofuran are applied as the solvent. It is sometimes preferable to first mix the carbonyl and amino components and then add the phosphorus component to the mixture. The reaction can be performed with or without removal of water by azeotropic distillation. Representative experimental protocols for typical Kabachnik–Fields reactions taken from the pioneering articles are given in Scheme 2.[‌4‌,‌6‌]

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