0 Hits

  • Previous / Next

You are using Science Of Synthesis as a Guest.
Please login to access the full content or check if you have access via
1.3.3 Transphosphorylation

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-214-00162

Wever, R.; Babich, L.; Hartog, A. F.Science of Synthesis: Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis, (20151223.

General Introduction

Phosphate esters and phosphoryl transfer play a very important role in all organisms and in all cellular processes.[‌1‌,‌2‌] DNA and RNA contain phosphate in their backbone and cellular membranes have phospholipids as components. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) forms the energy container of metabolism inside cells and it is also referred to as the “molecular unit of currency” of intracellular energy transfer.[‌3‌‌6‌] Phosphate also has a regulatory function such as in transmembrane signaling, immune response, host–pathogen interactions, and cellular control by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.[‌7‌] Phosphate plays a key role in many other biochemical processes, such as photosynthesis, sugar and lipid metabolism, the nitrogen cycle, and in the activation of metabolites as in the breakdown of glucose and glycogen. Phosphorylated enzyme cofactors such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+ and NADPH), pyridoxal phosphate, and thiamine pyrophosphate also exist. In cells, the phosphate group is introduced by phosphorylating enzymes, the phosphorylases or the phosphotransferases (kinases), using ATP as an energy-rich phosphate donor. However, many other enzymes including aldolases, mutases, restriction endonucleases, (deoxy)ribonucleases, phosphodiesterases, DNA and RNA ligases, DNA and RNA polymerases, and reverse transcriptases handle phosphorylated compounds.[‌8‌] In addition, a large and diverse group of enzymes exists that hydrolyze phosphorylated compounds. As will be described in this chapter, some of these enzymes are also able to carry out transphosphorylation reactions and can be used in a synthetic mode.