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2.11.1.1.1 Acyloxylation of Arenes

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-218-00206

Li, D.-D.; Wang, G.-W.Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Transformations via C—H Activation, (20152316.

Palladium-catalyzed, ligand-directed C—H functionalization has emerged as a powerful tool for the direct conversion of arenes into a variety of valuable products. Among these transformations, palladium-catalyzed acyloxylation reactions of aromatic C—H bonds are particularly attractive because they allow the direct formation of oxygenated arenes.

Mee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee eee Meeeeeee ee 8888 (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee, eeee e eeeee ee 88% eeeee ee eee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeʼe eeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee (e.e., eeeeeeee, 8,88-eeeeeeeeeeeeee) eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee(MM)-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Me 8888, Meeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeee e eee, eeeeee eeeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee M—M eeeee eeee eeeeee (Meeee 8).[‌88‌] M eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee, eeeeeeeee, eeeee, ee eeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee- ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee-M—M eeeee, eeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee 8.8–8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee, eeeee eee eee ee 8.8–8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeee-eeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee, eee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeeeee—eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeee 8 Meeeeee-Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M(ee8)—M Meeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
Me(MMe)8 (8.8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), MeMM, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8.8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88e [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeee eeeeeeeeee ee MM.

Me ee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee, eee Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] M eeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Meeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 Meeee (8/8) Meeee (%) ee 8 Mee
MM8 >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
M  8:8e 88 [‌88‌]
Me >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
Me 88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MMMM >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MMe 88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
Me >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
M(Me)=MMMe >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MM8M(Me)=MMMe >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]

e M eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee MM eee 8M MMM eeeeeeeeeeee.

e Meeee (8/8) eeeeeeeeee ee 8M MMM.

e Meeee (8/8) eeeeeeeeee ee MM.

Meeeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee 8-eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee M—M eeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 8 ee eeee eeeeee. Me eee eeeee eeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eee.

Meeeee 8 Meee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me M 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
(MM=MM)8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
(MM=MM)8 M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
(MM=MM)8 Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee M—M eeeee.

Me 8888, Me eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee-M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee 8.8–8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8 ee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] M eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeeee-Meeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M MMe M 8 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M MMe M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe MMe M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M MMe Me 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M MM(MMe)8 M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 88 88e [‌88‌]
M M MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 M 88 88e [‌88‌]
M M MM8Me M 88 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M 88 88e [‌88‌]
M MM8 M M 88 88e [‌88‌]

e MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee).

e MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), 88 °M.

e Me(MMe)8 (88 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), ee eee eeeeeee ee Me(M8MMM8)8, 888 °M.

Meeeeeeeeeee, Meeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeee- eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee M—M eeeeeeeeee eeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (Meeeee 8 eee Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, 8,8-eeeeeeee-8e,8,8,8,8,8e-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee (Meeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee (Meeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 88 [‌88‌]

Mee Meeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeee eee M—M eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meee- ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee 8.8 ee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee eeee eeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee-eeee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meee- ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee-8(8M)-eeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M  8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M  8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M MMMMMM M M  8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M M  8.8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me M  8.8 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8M

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me 8.8 88 [‌88‌]

Meee eeeeeeee, eee Meeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee 8 eee M—M eeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee 88 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (8.8 eeeee) ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee (8:8) ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee, e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8). Meee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meee-8,8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
M MM8 M eeeee [‌88‌]
MM8 M M 88 [‌88‌]

Me, Meee, eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 8).[‌88‌] Meeee 8 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee (8:8) ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 8 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 8

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M <8 [‌88‌]

Mee Meee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeeeeeee eee M(ee8)—M eeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeee 8 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee 8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee, e eeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meee- eee/ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8 eee 8, eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeee[e]eeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (8/8) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 8 eeee 88e [‌88‌]
Me M M <8:88e 88e [‌88‌]
M Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 8 eeee 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 8:8e 88 (8 + 8) [‌88‌]
Me M Me 8:8e 88 (8 + 8) [‌88‌]
M M Me 8.8:8e 88 (8 + 8) [‌88‌]
Me M Me 8:8e 88 (8 + 8) [‌88‌]
Me M Me 8.8:8e 88 (8 + 8) [‌88‌]
M M Me >88:8e 88 (8) [‌88‌]

e MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee) eee eeee.

e Meeeeeeeee ee 8M MMM ee eeeee eeeeeee.

e Meeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee 8 eee 8.

Mee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 8 eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eee eeeee-M—M ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee, eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeee 88 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee 8.8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee; eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee 8-eeeeee, 8-eeeeee, eee 8-eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, 8-eeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 88% eeeee eee e eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88.8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M 88 88 [‌88‌]

Mee eeeee eeeee, eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee M—M eeeee.

Me 8888, eee Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee M—M eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee Meeee (ee M8M8M8) ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeee eeeee, Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
M M Me Meeee (8.88 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me Meeee (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me Meeee (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me Meeee (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M Me M8M8M8 (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM M Me M8M8M8 (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM M Me Meeee (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MM M Me MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) <8 [‌88‌]
MMe M M Meeee (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M M MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Meeee (8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee) 88 [‌88‌]

Mee Meee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeee-8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee eee -eeeeeeeeee eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee e eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8 eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee α-eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meee-8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee eee 8-Meee-8-(eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M MMe M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
Me M MMe MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe MMe MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M(MM8)8M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M MMe 88e [‌88‌]
M MMe M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M MeMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M M(MMe)Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M eeeeeeeeee 88 [‌88‌]

e Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eee ee e-MeMM8M.

Mee Meeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eee eeeeeeee ee 8 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee, e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (8.8 eeeee) ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee, 8-eeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee M—M eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 ee eeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeee M—M eeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe MMe 8.8 88 [‌88‌]

Me 8888, Meeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeee) eeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeeeee(eeeeee)eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee M—M eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeeee (%) Mee
M Me M Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M MMMMMM M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M Me Me 88e [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88e [‌88‌]
M Me Me Me Me 88e [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M M Me Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M M MMe Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 (8) [‌88‌]
Me M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M eMe Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me Me 88e [‌88‌]
Me M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M (MM8)8 88 [‌88‌]

e 8 eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee.

e Meeeeeee eeee 88 e.

e 8:8 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee.

e Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeee: eeeeeeeee (8.88 eeee), 888 °M, 88 e.

e 8.88 eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee.

Me 8888, eee Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (88/88) Meeee (%) ee 88 Mee
M 88:8e 88e [‌88‌]
Me >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MMe >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]
MMMM >88:8e 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeee (88/88) eeeeeeeeee ee MM/MM.

e Meeeeee MeM(M8MMM8)8 ee MeMM/Me8M.

e M eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee 8M MMM eee MM.

Me 8888, eee Meee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-eeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeee) eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee M(ee8)—M eeeee eeee M—M eeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (M8M8M8) ee eee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeeeeeeee) eee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-Meeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
Me M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M MMe MMe M 88e [‌88‌]
Me M Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M 88 [‌88‌]

e Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee 88 °M eee 88 e.

Me 8888, eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee Meee, Mee, eee ee-eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee [Me(M8MMM8)+] ee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee [(MM8)8M8M8] ee eee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee/eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee(MM)/eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeeee eeeee.

Meeeee 88eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meee Meeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M MM8Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 88 88 [‌88‌]

Mee eeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee e eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee; eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee e eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee.

Me 8888, eee Meeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M MM8 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]

Meee, e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee, eeee ee, eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeee eeeee, eeeeee eeeee eeeee, eee eeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee Meeeee eee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (%) Mee
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]
88 [‌88‌]

Mee Meeeeeñe eeeee eee eeeeeeeee e eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee/8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee e eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee; eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeee eeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeee Meeeee eee Meeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Me(MMe)8 (eee%) Meee (e) Meeeee (%) Mee
M M M  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me  8 8 88e [‌88‌]
M Me M  8 8 88e,e [‌88‌]
Me M M  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M  8 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 88 8 88e [‌88‌]
M M M 88 8 88e [‌88‌]
MM8 M M 88 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8Me 88 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me  8 8 88e,e [‌88‌]
M M MMMe 88 8 88e [‌88‌]

e 8.88 eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee.

e Meeeeeee ee e 8.8-eeee eeeee.

e Meeeeeee ee e 8:8 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee.

e Mee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeee 8 eee 88 eee% Me(MMe)8.

e Meeeeeeee eee eeee ee e 8:8 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeee ee e 8:8 eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.

Me 8888, eee Me eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee(MM)-eeeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee (8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee 88 eeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee. Me eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee-eeee ee eeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee. Meeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee. Me ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeee)- eee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee- eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-(8-Meeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M Me MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M MMe MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M Me MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M MM8 MeMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M Me MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88e [‌88‌]
M(MM8)8M M M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
M MMMMMM M M M MMM (8 eeeee), 88 e 88 [‌88‌]

e 8.8 eeeee ee Me8M eee 8.8 eeeee ee eeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee.

Me eeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee; eeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee.

Me 8888, eee Meeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88 eee Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee ee e eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-Meeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meee (e) Meeeee (%) Mee
M  8 88 [‌88‌]
Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
MMe 88 88 (88) [‌88‌]
Me 88 88 (88) [‌88‌]
Me 88 88 (88) [‌88‌]

e Meeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-(Meeeeeee-8-ee)eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88M

M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M  8 88 [‌88‌]
MMe MMe  8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 88e [‌88‌]

e 88% eeeeeeeeee.

Meeee, eee Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-(8-eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeee MM eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee (88 eee%) eee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 eee M—M eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee ee M-(8-Meeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe MMe 8 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M 8 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 8 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeee, Meeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee(MM)-eeeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee e eeeee M-eeeeee-M-8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (MeeM) eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee (8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeee eeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee[e]eeeeeeeee, eee eee MMeM eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Meeee eeee eeeeeeee, 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee[e]eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee Meee Meeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeeee (%) Mee
M M Me M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8Me M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8 M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 8 88e,e [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M M 8 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M Me M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M MM8 M 8 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M e-Me M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 8 88e [‌88‌]
Me M M M eMe M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M 88 88e,e [‌88‌]
eMe M M Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8 M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
(MM8)8 M M Me M 88 88 [‌88‌]

e 8.8 eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee.

e 8.88 eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee.

e M eeeee eeeeee (<8%) ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee.

e 8.8 eeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeee.

e Meeeee ee 88 °M.

e MeMM eee eeee ee eeeeeee.

Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee M(ee8)—M eeeee eeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee(MMM) eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee.

Me 8888, eee Mee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-eeeeee eeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eee eeeeeeee ee 88 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eee 8.8–8 eeeeeeeeeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee M-Meeeee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me eMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-M8MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-M8M-8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-eeeeeeee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-eeeee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me (MM8)8Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me MM=MMMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeMM8M8MM=MM 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeMM8M8MM=MM 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 8-MeeMM=MM 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M e-Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MM=MMMe Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M M Me 88 [‌88‌]

Meeee, Meeee, eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee(M) eeeeee eee eeeeee(M) eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeee ee eeeeee e eeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeee Meeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Me8 Meeee (%) Mee
M 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M 8-M8MM8M8 <8 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
Me 8-M8MM8M8 <8 [‌88‌]
Me 8-MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe Me 88 [‌88‌]

Mee Me eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee 8-eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Me8 Meeeee (%) Mee
M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMM Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MM8 M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-M8MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-e-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8,8-M8M8M8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 8-eeeeeeee 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee (eeee 8.8 eeeee) ee 8.8 e eeeeeeeee.

Mee Meeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee e eeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeee eeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeee)eeeee (MeMeeMe) eeeeeeeee eeeee eee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 88 (M8 = Me, e-Me) ee eeee eeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeee)eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMM(eMe)8 M e-Me 88 [‌88‌]

Mee Meeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeee)eeeee (MeeMeeMe) ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee ee ee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee–eeeeeeeeeeeee (MMM) eeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee [eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeee)eeeee]eeeeee eee e eeeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeee)eeeee (MeeMeeMe) eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeee)eeeee (MeMeeMe) eeeee, ee ee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee ee eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee [Meeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeee)eeeee]eeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
e-Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me M 88 [‌88‌]
MMMMe8 M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
MMM M 88 [‌88‌]
(M)-MM=MMMe M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88e [‌88‌]

e 88 eee% Me(MMe)8 eee eeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeee [Meeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeee)eeeee]eeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M M eeeee [‌88‌]

Mee Meee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeee[e]eeeeeeeee 88 eeee eee[(eeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee, eeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeee-eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeee.

Meeeee 88eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeee[e]eeeeeeeee eeee Mee[(eeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 88 [‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

8-Meeeeee-M-eeeeeeeeeeee 88; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me e eeeeeee eeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (8 eeee), Me(MMe)8 (88 ee, 8.88 eeee), eee M8M8M8 (888 ee, 8 eeee) ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8 eM) ee 888 °M, eee eeeee MeMM (8 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee MMM. Meee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeeeeee eeeee/MeMMe 8:8) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee.

(8-Meeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeeeee(8-eeeeeee)eeeeeee 88 (M8 = Me, e-Me); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me eeee-eeeee 88-eM Meeeeee M-eeee, eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeee eee, eee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee(eeeeee)(8-eeeeeee)eeeeee eeeeeeeee (8.8 eeee), Me(MMe)8 (88.8 ee, 8.88 eeee), MeM(M8Me-Me)8 (888.8 ee, 8.8 eeee) ee MeM(MMe)8 (888.8 ee, 8 eeee), eee MeMMe (88.8 ee, 8.8 eeee) eeeee M8. Mee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8–88 eM) ee MeMM (88 eM) eee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeeee eee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee 88–888 °M eee 8–8 e eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee MM/MM eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeee ee ee, eeeeeeee eeee Me8M (888 µM), eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeee ee eeeeee eee eeee eee eee ee MeMMe. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeeee/MeMMe).

References