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2.11.1.1.3 Hydroxylation of Arenes

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-218-00206

Li, D.-D.; Wang, G.-W.Science of Synthesis: Catalytic Transformations via C—H Activation, (20152355.

Phenols are vital industrial commodities as precursors to many materials and useful compounds.[‌3‌,‌7‌,‌62‌] They have valuable applications in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers,[‌4‌,‌7‌] and play a pivotal role in the functionalization of aromatic moieties.[‌63‌] Although many synthetic methods have been developed and tremendous progress has been made in this field over the past decades, there are still limitations related to direct hydroxylation in terms of regio- and chemoselectivity. Therefore, the direct catalytic hydroxylation of arenes to produce phenols has attracted much attention.

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Me eeeee 8888, Meeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee (88 eee) ee eeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee (8 eeeee)/eeeeee eeeeeeee (88 eee)/8,88-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee (88 eee) eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee. Meeeeee eeee eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeee eeeeee eeeee e 8% eeeeeeeee/eeeeee eeeeeeee. Meee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee. Meeee, eee eeee eeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Me 8888, eee Me eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeee 8 eee ee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeee e eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee; eeeeee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeee (eeeeeee, eeeee, ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeee (eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee, eeeee, ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee) eee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee. Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee; ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee M888M. Meeeeee, ee eee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeee ee eeeee eeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee/eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meeeee (%) Mee
M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe 88e [‌88‌]
M MMMe 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M MM8 88 (88) [‌88‌]
Me M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
M MM 88 [‌88‌]
M MM8 88 (88) [‌88‌]

e Meeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee 8 eee ee M8.

e Meeeeeeeee: Me(M8MMM8)8 (88 eee%), MM8MMM8 (8 eeeee), MeMMe (8 eeeee).

Meeeeeee, Meee eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeeee eee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee M(ee8)—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee. Me eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee eee e M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee 8-(8-eeeeeee)eeeeeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeeee eee M-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeee Meee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M eMe 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M MM8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
M M M M M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M M 88e [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MeMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
M Me M M M M 88e [‌88‌]

e MeMMM (8.8 eeee) eee eeeee.

Me 8888, Mee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee e eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeeee ee 88 eee% eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee eeee 8 eeeeeeeeeee ee Meeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeee(eeeeeeee eeeeee) (MMM-8888) eee eeee-eeeee eeeeeee ee 88–88 °M. Meee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eee e eeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeee-eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeee, eee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeee eee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeee. Meeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee Meeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
Me M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 M M MMe M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M M Me 8e [‌88‌]
Me Me M Me M 8e [‌88‌]
Me M Me Me M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 M M M M 88 [‌88‌]

e Me eeeeeeee, eeee ee 888 °M.

Meee eeeeeeee, Meeee eee ee-eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee M—M eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 88 eeeee e eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee/Meeee/eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee Meeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeee/eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 MMe M 88 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 Me Me 88 88 [‌88‌]

Me 8888, eee Mee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 eee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee-eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eee eeee eeeee eeee M—M eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee ee eeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee Meee/Meeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeeee (%) Mee
Me M M (88) [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8MM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MMMM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
8-M8MM8M8 M M 88 [‌88‌]
e-Me MMe M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
e-Me M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
e-Me M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
e-Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
e-Me M Me (88) [‌88‌]
e-Me M MMe 88 (88) [‌88‌]
e-Me M M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeeeee M M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeeeee M M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeeeee M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeeeee M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
eMe M M 88 (88) [‌88‌]
eMe M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
eMe Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
MMMe8 M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
Me Me Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
eeeeeeeeeee M Me (88) [‌88‌]
Me M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me 88 (88) [‌88‌]
MMe M M 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe M Me 88 [‌88‌]
MMe Me Me 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeee.

Mee Meeee eeeee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee M—M eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee Meeee/eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee/eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeee-eeeeeeee. Me e eee eeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee eee Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee/M—M Meee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meee (e) Meeee (%) Mee
M M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe M MMe 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MMe MMe 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M Me M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M Me 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M Me M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M MM8 M 8 88 [‌88‌]
M M M M M 8.8 88 [‌88‌]
MM8 M M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M M M 8 88 [‌88‌]

Me 8888, eee Meeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeee-8,8-eeeee eeeee (eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeee eeeeeeee eee e eeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeee-8,8-eeee. M eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee-8,8-eeee eeeeeeee 88. Meee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee-eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee, ee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeee ee Meeee-Meeeeeeee Meeeeee Me Meee Meeeeee-8,8-eeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 Meeeeeeeee (Meee 8) Meeee (%) Mee
Me M M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M (MM8)8 Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me Me Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M Me M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M M e-Me Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M M MM8Me Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88 [‌88‌]
M M MMe Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8 eeeee), eeeeeee, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M Me M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M M Me Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M M Me Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M M M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M M M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M MMM M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (88 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M Me M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M MM8 M Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]
M M MM Me(M8Me-Me)8 (8 eee%), MeM(MMe)8 (8.8 eeeee), MeMM8, 888 °M 88e [‌88‌]

e Meeeeeee ee e eee(eeeeeee) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeee Me8M eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eee.

Meeeeeeeeeee, eee Meee eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeee-eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee [eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 8-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 88 eeee eeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee M—M eeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeee ee eee eeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeee-Meeeeeee, Meeeeeeee-Meeeeeeee eeeee-Meeeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeeeeeeee Meeee (%) Mee
e-Me M M M Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
e-Me M Me M Me(M8MMM8)8 (88 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 888 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8.8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M Me M Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8.8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me M Me Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M Me(M8MMM8)8 (8 eee%), MeM(M8MMM8)8 (8.8 eeeee), 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me M MMe M Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), M8M8M8 (8 eeeee), MMM, 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]
8-M8MM8M8 M M M Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), M8M8M8 (8 eeeee), MMM, 88 °M, 88 e 88 [‌88‌]
Me MMe M MMe Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), M8M8M8 (8 eeeee), MMM, 88 °M, 8.8 e 88 [‌88‌]
Mee M M M Me(MMe)8 (8 eee%), M8M8M8 (8 eeeee), MMM/8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8:8), 88 °M, 8 e 88 [‌88‌]

Me eeeeee eee eeee eeee, eee Meeee eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeee-M—M eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee [eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee Meee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee e eeeeeee- ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee(MM)-eeeeeeeee M—M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 8′-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8-eee 88 eeeee [eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee-Meeeeeee Meeeeeeee(MM)-Meeeeeeee M—M Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
eMe M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
eMe M M Me M M M 88 [‌88‌]
eMe M Me M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
eMe Me M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
eMe Me Me M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
eMe MMe M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
eMe M M M M M Me 88 [‌88‌]
eMe M M M M M MMe 88 [‌88‌]
eMe M M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
eMe Me M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
eMe MM8 M M M M M 88e [‌88‌]
Me Me M M M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M M M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M M Me M M MM8 88 [‌88‌]
Me M (MM=MM)8 (MM=MM)8 M 88 [‌88‌]

e 8.8 eeeee ee MeM(M8MMM8)8 eee eeee.

e 88 eee% ee Me(M8MMM8)8 eee eeee ee 88 °M.

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

8-Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeee 88; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M 88-eM Meeeeee-eeee eeee (eeee e Meeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eee) eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeee Me(MMe)8 (88.8 ee, 8.88 eeee) eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeee (8.8 eeee), eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee (88.8 ee, 8.8 eeee), MMMe (88.8 ee, 8 eeee), eee MMM (8.8 eM). Mee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeee eeee M8 (eee eeeeeee, 8 ×). Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee 888 °M eee 88 e, eeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeee MeMMe eee M8M, eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee e eeeee eee ee Meeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeee 8.8 M ee MMe (8 eM) eee eeeee (8 × 8 eM). Mee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee (Me8MM8) eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee) ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee.

8-Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee 88; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee/[Mee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee:[‌88‌]

Me(M8MMM8)8 (8.8 ee, 8.88 eeee) eee [eee(eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee)eeee]eeeeeee (888 ee, 8.8 eeee) eeee eeeee ee e 8-eM eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeee (8 eM) eee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (8.8 eeee). Mee eeee eee eeeeee eeee e Meeeee-eeeee eee eee eeeeee ee 88 °M ee e eee eeeee. Meee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee ee MMM), eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MM8Me8) ee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee.

8-Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeee 88; Meeeeee Meeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeee(MM) Meeeeee/Meeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee/Meeeeeeeeeeeeee Meee:[‌88‌]

Me(MMe)8 (8.8 ee, 8.88 eeee) eee M8M8M8 (888 ee, 8.8 eeee) eeee eeeee ee e 8-eM eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee, eeeeeeee ee MMM (8 eM) eee eee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeee (8.8 eeee). Mee eeee eee eeeeee eeee e Meeeee-eeeee eee eee eeeeee ee 88 °M ee e eee eeeee. Meee eee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (eeeeeeeee ee MMM), eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (eeeeee eee, eeeeee/MM8Me8) ee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee.

References