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1.2.1 Non-Enantioselective Reactions

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-221-00020

Jammi, S.; Nottingham, C.; Guiry, P. J.Science of Synthesis: Metal-Catalyzed Cyclization Reactions, (2016156.

After the initial report of the intramolecular Heck reaction in the formation of heterocyclic rings by Mori and co-workers,[‌4‌] Grigg and co-workers in 1984 reported the first formation of carbocycles using this reaction.[‌10‌] The early publications on the intramolecular Heck reaction reported low yields, and thus application in the synthesis of complex natural products was limited. Later, the momentum in this field increased and the Heck reaction is now commonly employed in cyclization steps. This is mainly due to a better understanding of the solvents, bases, additives, catalysts, and ligands necessary for optimal reaction conditions. A wide range of ring sizes can be formed by employing this reaction: small-sized rings (3 and 4; Section, common-sized rings (5 and 6; Section, medium-sized rings (7 to 11; Section, and macrocycles (>11; Section