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2.10.2.3.1 Ring-Closing Metathesis with 1,n-Dienes

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-222-00346

Lee, D.; Reddy Sabbasani, V.Science of Synthesis: Metal-Catalyzed Cyclization Reactions, (20162567.

The regio- and stereo-controlled total synthesis of chitinase inhibitor (−)-allosamizoline (115) uses a ring-closing metathesis as key step for the formation of the cyclopentene moiety (Scheme 25). The synthesis starts with commercially available d–glucosamine, which is converted into 1,6-dienes 113 (R1 = Ac or CO2Me). Ring-closing metathesis of these dienes with Grubbsʼ second-generation catalyst 12 affords the same cyclopentene derivative 114 in high yield (85 and 88%), which is then elaborated to (−)-allosamizoline (115).[‌58‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (%) ee 888 Mee
Me 88 [‌88‌]
MM8Me 88 [‌88‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-eeeeeeeeeee M (888, M8 = Me) eee (−)-eeeeeeeeeeeeee M (888, M8 = M), eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888, eeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee e Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee eeeeee eee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeeeee M eee (−)-Meeeeeeeeeeeee M[‌88‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee M (888) eee M (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee 888, eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee,[‌88‌] ee eeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee–eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee. Meeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee eee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee, ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Meee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 eee 888.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee e Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeee eee Mee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeee M eee M[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee (88%). Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 888, eeeee e eeeee eeeeee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee M (888).

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee M[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Me eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeee-8,8-eeeee-e-eeeeeeee (888), (−)-eeeeeeeeeee (888), eee (−)-eeeeeeeeeeeee M (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-eeeeeee (888), eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee. Me eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee (eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee e eee e).[‌88‌] Me eee eeeee eeee, eee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 888 eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 888 eee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee eeeee (88%) eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 888 (88%) eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 (88%). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee (−)-eeeeeee (888) ee eeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeee Meeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (±)-eeeeeeeeeee M (888), eee eeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee e eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee-eeeeeeee eeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee M[‌88‌]

Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee (888).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Me eee eeeee, e eeeee eee-eeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee 888 ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee 888. Me eee eeeeee, e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeeee eeeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeeeeeee 888. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee 888 ee eeeeeeee ee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeee ee Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeee (888) (Meeeee 88). Me eee eee eeee, e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee-eeeeeee eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Meee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eee e eeeee-eeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeee[‌88‌]

Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (±)-eeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeeee e eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeee eee e eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee 888 eeeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeee 888 ee 88% eeeee ee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888, eeee eeeee (±)-eeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (±)-Meeeeeeee M[‌88‌]

Me e eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (±)-eeeeeeee (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (±)-Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (±)-eeeeeeeeeeee (888) eee (±)-eeeeeeeee (888) (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, eeeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee α-eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee ee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee (±)-eeeeeeeee (888) ee 88% eeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeee-Meeeeeeee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (±)-Meeeeeeeeeee eee (±)-Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

M eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee (888) eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee 888 (M8 = Me) eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 888 eee 888 ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeee 888 (M8 = M) eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee Meee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeeeeeeee Meeeee (888/888) Meeeee (%) Mee
Me 88, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee, eeeeee e.e. e.e. [‌88‌]
M 88 (8 eee%), eeeeeee, 88 °M 8:8 88 [‌88‌]

e e.e. = eee eeeeeeee.

M eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeee (888M) eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee–eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee e eeeee-eeeeeeee eeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] eee-Meeeeeeee (888M) eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee (M)-eeeeeee-eeeeeee 8,8-eeeee 888 ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88. Meeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee, β,γ-eeeee 888 eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Meeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee 888 ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee α-eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee (+)-eeeeeeeee (888M).

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeee (888), 88-eeeeeeeeee (888), eee eee eeeeeeeeee 888 eeeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee[8.8.8]eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌‌88‌] Me e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (888), eee eeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee 888 ee 88 eeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%) eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (88% eeeee), eeeeeeee eee ee e eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee, eeeee 888 eeeeeeee e eeee eeeeee eeeee eee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%).[‌88‌] Meee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee eee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888, eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌88‌]

Me e eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (888), eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee; ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%) eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888.[‌88‌] M eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-88-eeeeeeeeee (888) eee eee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee 888 (M8 = M, Me) eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee 888 (M8 = M, Me) ee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee ee α,β-eeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee ee eeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee ee eeee-eeeeeee ee 888 ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee 888, eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (−)-88-eeeeeeeeee (888) eee eee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (%) Mee
M 88 [‌88‌]
Me 88 [‌88‌]

Me eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee (888) eeeeeee e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Mee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888, eeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888. Meeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeee eeeee, eeeeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (8 eee%), eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeee 88% eeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeee M (888), eeeeeee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee, ee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee. Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%) eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee e eeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888, eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (8 eee%).[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee 888 eee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeee M (888M) eee (−)-eeeeeeee M (888M), eeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeee M[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee (888) eeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee. Mee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888,[‌88‌] eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee ee 88% eeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee, e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee e eeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Meeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeee eeeeeee Meeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eee/ee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee. Me eee eeeee eeee, eee eeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeee eeeeeee 8 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%).

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee ee e Meeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

M eeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888) (Meeeee 88). Meeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888. Mee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 888, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee [(+)-888].[‌88‌] Me e eeeeeee eeeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee 888 eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee (88%) eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%) (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Meeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888).

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌‌88‌]

Me e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeeee M (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee M eeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee M eeee eeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88, eee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88. Mee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eee ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeeee. Meeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee 888 °M eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 (eee eeeeeeee), eeee eeeee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeeeeeee M[‌88‌]

Mee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee-eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeee. Me e eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-eeeeeeeee (888), eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeee 888 ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 88). Me eee eeeee eeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888, eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee. Meeeeee ee eeee eeeee eeeee, e eeee eeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeee 888 ee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee, eeeee ee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee e 8,8-eeeee ee eeee eee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (888) (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee. M eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

M eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee–eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-, eeeee-, eee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee, e eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeee (888) ee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌88‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888.[‌88‌] M eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeee (888).[‌88‌] Me eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeeeeee eeee (8M,8M)-eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee (88%), eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌,‌88‌,‌888‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee M-eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (eee eeee Meeeee 8, Meeeeee 8.88.8.8.8) ee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-MMM-888 M (888) eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee-eeeeeeee 8,8-eeeee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee (88%, M/M >88:8). Meeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee–eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee (+)-MMM-888 M (888) ee eeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-MMM-888 M[‌888‌]

Me eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-eeeeeeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%). Mee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee 8,8-eeeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee 888 eee eeeeeee(MMM) eeeee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee 8,8-eeeee eeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

M eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee e eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee M (888) (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee 888 eeeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888. Meeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee. Meeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeeeeee 888, eee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 888 eee eee eeeee 888 ee e 8:8 eeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 88 °M ee eeeeeee eeeee e 88:8 eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee 888 eee 888 ee 88% eeeee. Meeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee e eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeeeeeee–eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeee 888.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeee M[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

Meeeeeeeee Meeee (888/888) Meeee (%) Mee
MM8Me8, 88 °M 8:8 88 [‌888‌]
eeeeeee, 88 °M 8:88 88 [‌888‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeeee M, e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Me eeee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 (88 eee%) eeee 8 eeeee ee e eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee 8,88-eeeee 888 eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee-8,8-eeeeeee (88 eee%), eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee (88%), eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeee(MM) eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeeeee M. Meee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee M (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Me eeee eeeeeeeee, eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 eeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee Meeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee(8-eeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeee. Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee 8,88 eeeee 888 eeeeeeeee eee eee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888, eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee M (888).

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Me eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee M (888) eeeeeeee e eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 (eeee 8:8 ee ee eee MMMM eeeee) ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeee eeee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee ee eeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (8.888 M) eeeeeeee eee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee (88%) eee eeee M eeeeeeeeeee (>88%). Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888 eee ee eeeee-eeee eeeeeeee eeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee M (888).

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

Me eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee M (888). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee 888 eeeeeeee eeee eeeee 888 eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Me eee eeeee eeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee 888 eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeee 888 eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meeeeee, eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee (88 eee%) ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 888 ee eee eeeeeeee ee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeee eee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee; eeeeeee, eee/eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeee (Meeeee 88). Meeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee (8.8 eM) eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee (8 °M ee ee) eeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee [eeeee (M/M) 8:8]. Meeeeee e eeeee-eeee eeeeeeee, eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee M (888).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

Me e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee (−)-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee M (888),[‌888‌] e Meeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeee-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). α-Meeeeee eeeee 888 ee eeeeeeee eee e eeeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee Meeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeee-eeee eeeee eeeee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee-eee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (M-Meeeeeeeee) eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 888 eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (ee ≥ 88:8). Meeee-eeee eeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeee eeeee 888 eeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 eeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee eee eee M/M eeeeeeeeeee (8:8). Meeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeeee eee M-eeeeeeeeee (−)-eeeeeeeeeeeeeee M (888) eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee 888 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee (+)-8,88-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee M (888).[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeeeeeeeee M[‌888‌,‌888‌]

M eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee M,M-8,8-eeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeee eeeee ee e eeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeee eeeeee 888 eeeeee e eeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeee e eeeeee eeeee- eee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeee eeeee (88%) eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeee 888 eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee, ee eee eeee eeee, ee eeeee ee eeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee M,M-8,8-eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee-Meee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeeeee ee M,M-8,8-Meeeee[‌888‌]

Meee eee-eeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee (888) eeeeeeeeee ee M,M-8,8-eeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeee eeeeeeee 888 eeeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee e eeeeeee ee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 eee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee e 8:8.8 eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee ee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee 888 °M, eee eeeeeeeee ee 888 eeeeeeeee [eeeee (888/888) 8:8]. Meeeeee ee eee eeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Mee-Meee Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee eee eee Meeeeeeee ee M,M-Meeeee eee Mee Meeeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌,‌888‌]

M eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee Mee 888 888 (888) eeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee e eee eeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeee 888, eeeeeee eeee eee Meeeeee eeeee 888, eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeee eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee 88% eeeee. Mee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeeeeeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeee eeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeee.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Mee 888 888 Meeeeeee eeee e Meeeeee Meeee[‌888‌]

Me eee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee 88-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeeeee M-eeeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee M-eeeeee ee MM eeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee M-eeeeeeeeee 888 ee e eeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee (88%). Meeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee, eee M/M eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee 88-eeeeeeee M-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888. Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee ee eee M-eeeeee eeee, eee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee-eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee 88-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Me e eeeee eeeeeeeee ee (−)-eeeeeeeeeee (888), e eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88). Meee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 888 (M8 = M) ee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, eee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eeeeeeee eee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee 888. Mee eeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 ee eee eeeeeeee ee eeeee-8,8-eeeeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeeee 888 ee 88% eeeee. Mee eeeeeeeee 888 (M8 = MM8MMM8MM=MM8) eeeeeeeeee e eeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee 888; eeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee 888 (M8 = M) eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeeee.[‌888‌] Meeeeeee eeee 888, (−)-eeeeeeeeeee (888) ee eeeeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (−)-Meeeeeeeeee[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (%) ee 888 Mee
M 88 [‌888‌]
MM8MMM8MM=MM8 88 [‌888‌]

(+)-Meeeeeeeeee M (888), ee eeeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee e 88-eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeee, ee eeeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeee,[‌888‌] eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 8 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 88% eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee Meeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee (+)-eeeeeeeeeee M (888) ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

Me eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee (+)-eeeeeeeeeee M (888, M8 = Me) eee (+)-eeeeeeeeeee M [888, M8 = (M)-MMe=MMMe], eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88, eee Meeeee–Meeeeee eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Me eee eeeee eeee, eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee–eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee M,M,M-eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee 888. Meeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee eeee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌888‌] Mee eeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee ee M88 ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee e M88 eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee M88 eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee (+)-Meeeeeeeeeee M eee M[‌888‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 Meeee (%) Mee
Me 88 [‌888‌]
(M)-MMe=MMMe 88 [‌888‌]

Me eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee-8 (888), e eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee eeee eeeee (88%) eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Meeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee 888 eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee 8,8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee 888.[‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeee-8[‌888‌]

M eeeeeeeeeee eeee-eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee 888 eeee Meeeeeʼ eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee 88 eeeeeeeeeee eeeee e eee eeeeee eeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee eeeee ee eeee 88-eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee 888 ee e eeeeee M-eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eee eeeeeeeee M eeeeee eeee eeeeee (Meeeee 88). Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee 888 eeee eeee(eeeeeeeeeeeee)eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee (MMMM) eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee M (888).[‌888‌,‌888‌]

Meeeee 88 Meee-Meeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee eee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee M[‌888‌]

References