Navigation

0 Hits

  • Previous / Next

You are using Science Of Synthesis as a Guest.
Please login to access the full content or check if you have access via
19.4 Metal–Organic Frameworks as Heterogeneous Photocatalysts

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-229-00329

Albero, J.; García, H.Science of Synthesis: Photocatalysis in Organic Synthesis, (20181601.

Porous materials are among the preferred solid catalysts owing to the large surface area that these materials can offer. Besides zeolites and mesoporous aluminosilicates, one type of crystalline porous solid that is attracting considerable attention in heterogeneous catalysis, including photocatalytic applications, is metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). These materials are comprised of two building blocks: firstly, one that sits in the nodal positions of the lattice and may contain a single metal ion, such as aluminum(3+) in MIL-53(Al) (MIL: materials of Institut Lavoisier), or clusters of a few metal ions frequently connected by oxygen or hydroxy bridges. Examples of the latter include MIL-100, which is formed by iron(3+) trimers connected to a single oxygen atom (Fe33O), and UiO-66 (UiO = University of Oslo), in which six zirconium atoms serve as nodes to form octahedra that have four oxygen and four µ3-hydroxy bridges in the faces between three zirconium atoms. The second building block is a rigid organic linker that holds the nodes in place by acting as a di-, tri-, or multipolar ligand. Scheme 18 depicts the two different constituents of a metal–organic framework.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee ee e MeM-88-Meee Meeee–Meeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee ee 8888 ee Meeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeee eeeeee ee Méeee,[‌88‌] Meeeeeee,[‌88‌] eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeee eeeee eeeee eeeeeee eeee (eeeeeeeeee eeeee 8888 e8/e), eeeee eeee eeeeeeee, eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeee eeeeeeee eee eee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee (eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eeeeeeee- eee eeeeeeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee) ee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee. Meeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eee eeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee. Me eeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeee eeeeeeeeee.

Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeee ee MeM-88 eee MeM-88. Me eeee eeeee, eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee Me8M8(MM)8 eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee: eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee MeM-88 eee eeeeeeee-8,8′-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee ee MeM-88. Meeeeeeeeee, eee eee MeM eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee. Meeeeee, eee eeee eeee ee eeee eeeeee ee MeM-88 eeee ee MeM-88 eeeee ee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee-8,8′-eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeeeee, ee eeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee.

Meee eee eeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee eeeee eeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeee eeee. Mee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeee ee eeeeee eeeeeee–eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee eee eeee ee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeee. Mee eeeeeee, e eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee MeM-88 eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee e eee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee, ee eeeee 888 ee, eee eeee eeee ee eee eeeeeee ee eee MeM-88 eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeee eeee.[‌88‌] M eeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeee. Meeeeeee, eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeeeee (e.e., MMM-888),[‌88‌] eee eeee ee eeeeeeee; eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eee ee eeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeee eeeee. Mee eeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eee e eeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee-eeee eeeeeeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee Meeeee 88; eeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee ee eeeeeee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, ee ee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee-eeeeeeeeee eeeee ee eeee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeee eeee e Meeeeeeeeeeee Meeeee ee Meeeeeee Meeee Meeee ee Meeee Meeeeeeeee

Meeeeee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee 8888, eeeee eee eeeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee MMM-8 ee Meeeeeee eee ee-eeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee, Meeeíe eee ee-eeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee MMM-8 eeeee ee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeee.[‌88‌] Mee eeeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee ee eeeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eee eeee eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee. Me eeee eeeeee, ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeee 8,8-ee-eeee-eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeee ee eee eeee eeee eee eeeeee eee eeeeee eee eeeee ee MMM-8 eee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeee eee eeeee eee, eeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeeeeeee ee e Meeeee Meeeeeee Meeeee e Meee ee MMM-8 eee e 8,8-Me-eeee-eeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeee eee Meeee–Meeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Mee ee eee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Me eeeeeee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee. Mee eee ee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eee eeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee, ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee. Me eeee eee, eeeeeeeeeee ee MM8-MMM-888(Me) eeeee eeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeee eeeee (>888 ee) eee eeee eeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Me eeee eeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeee ee e eeeee ee eee eeeee ee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeee ee e eeeeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeee. Mee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeee MMM-888(Me) eeeeeeeeee, ee eeee eeee, eeeeeee(MM) eeeeeee ee e eeeeeee-eeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeee eeee eeee eee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee.[‌88‌]

Mee ee eee eeeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeeeeeee eeee e eeeeee eeee (eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeeee), eeeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeee. Me eeee eeeeeee, MMM-888(Me) eee eeee eeeeeeee ee e eeeeeeeeeeeee eee e eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeee 8-eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeee Meeeeee Meeeeeeee ee Meeeee Meeeeeee/Meeeeeeeeeee eeee 8-Meeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Me Meee Meeeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

M8 M8 Meeee (%) Mee
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M 88 [‌88‌]
8-M8MM8M8 M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 M 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee M 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 M 88 [‌88‌]
8-eMeM8M8 M 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
Me M 88 [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeee M 88 [‌88‌]
8-eeeee M 88 [‌88‌]
8-eeeeeee M 88 [‌88‌]
Me Me 88 [‌88‌]
Me MM8 88 [‌88‌]

Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeee eee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee MM8-MMM-888(Me) (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌] Me eeeeeeee, e MeM-88-eeee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee ee eeeeeeee ee eeeee e eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeee-8,8′-eeeeeeeeeeeee eee 8,8′-eeeeeeeeee-8,8′-eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee eeeee-eeeeee MeM-88 eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeee ee eeee-eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee e eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee(MMM) eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee.[‌88‌] Meeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee, eeee eeeeeeee MeM-88 eeeeeeee eee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eeeeee eee eeee eee eee-Meeee eeeeeeee eee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).[‌88‌]

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeee Meeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeeeee, Mee-Meeee Meeeeeee, eee Meeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee[‌88‌,‌88‌]

Meeeeeeeeee 88

Me8 Meeeee (%) Mee
Me 88 [‌88‌]
8-Mee 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
8-MM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeeeeeeee ee MMM eeeeeeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeee 88M

Me8 Meeeee (%) Mee
Me 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeM8M8 88 [‌88‌]
8-MeMM8M8 88 [‌88‌]

e Meeeeeeeee ee MMM eeeeeeeeeeee.

M eeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee ee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee ee eeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee MMM-888(Me).[‌88‌] Meeeee ee e eeee eeeeeeee eeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee eeee eeeeeeee eeee Meeee (eee ε-eeeeeeeeeee) ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee. Meeeee ee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eee eeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee eeeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeee (Meeeee 88).

Mee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee ee ee eeee ee e eeeeeee ee eeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeee. Meeeeeeee, eee eeeeee eeeeeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeee eeee ee eee eeee eeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee. Meee, eee eee ee ee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeee 88% eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeeeee, eeeee eeeeee ee eeeeeeeeee eeeee 88%.

Meeeee 88 Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeee eeee Meeeeee Meeeeeee Meeeeeeeee Meee Mee Meeee eee eee Meeeee Meeeeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeeee ee Meeeeee ee Meeeeeeeeeeee[‌88‌]

Me eeeee eeeeeee, eeeee eeee eeeeeee ee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeee, eeeeee eeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeeee ee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeee e eeee eeeeee eeee ee eeeeeeee, ee eee ee eeeeeeeee eeee eeeee eee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eee eeee eeeee, eeeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eee eeee eeeee eeeeeeeeee, eee eeee MM eeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeeeee, eeeeee eeeeeeeee, eee eeeeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeee eee ee eeee eeeee ee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeee–eeeeeee eeeeeeeeee eeee eeee eeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeee, eeeeeeeeeeee eeee eee eee ee eeeeeee eeeee. Meee eeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeeee ee eeeee eeeee eee eee eeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeee ee eeeee, eeee ee eeeeeeee, eeeeeee, eeeeeeee, eee eeeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeee ee ee eeee ee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeeee eeeeeeeee eee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee.

Meeeeeeeeeee Meeeeeeee

Meeeee (8); Meeeeee Meeeeeeee:[‌88‌]

M eeeeeee ee MeMM (8 eM), M8M (8 eM), eee eeeeeee (88 µM, 8.8 eeee) eee eeeeeeeeeee eeee e 88-eM Meeeeee eeee eeeeeeeeee eee MMM-888(Me) eeeeeeeeeeeee (88 ee). Mee eeeeeeeee eeeeeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeee eeeee 88 ee% M8M8 (88 µM, 8.88 eeee) eee eeeee eeeeeeee, eee eee eeeeeee eee eeeeeeeeee eeeee e 888-M Me eeee, eeeeee eeee e MM-eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee MM eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeeee eeee 888 ee eee ee MM-eeeeee eeeeee ee eeeeee eee MM eeeeeeeee ee eeeeeeeeeee eeeeee eeee 888 ee. Meee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee, eee eeeee eeeeee eee eeeeee ee eee eeeee, eee eeee eee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee ee eee-eeee MeMM (8 eM) ee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee, eeeee eeeeee eee eeeeeeee eeeeee eeee e eeeeee-eeeee eeeeee. Mee eeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeee eeee eeeeeeee ee MM eee MM/MM, eeeee eeeeeee ee ee eeeeeeee eeeeeeee. Mee eeeeeeeeeeeee ee M8M8 eee eeeeeeeeee ee eee eeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeee eeeeee ee eee eeeee ee eee eeeeeeeee ee e eeeeee MeMM–M8M8 eeeeeee.

References


Cookie-Einstellungen