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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-002-00797

Negishi, E.-i.; Takahashi, T.Science of Synthesis, (20032759.

In view of the highly electropositive nature of zirconium (Pauling electronegativity=1.31.4), the ZrC bonds may be converted into XC bonds, where X is more electronegative than zirconium. This process must be further facilitated by the availability of an empty valence-shell orbital in the 16-electron zirconocene derivatives. Of particular interest is the synthesis of five-membered heterocycles 234 containing a wide variety of heteroatoms as shown in Scheme 97.[‌260‌]

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