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1.1 Relative Reactivities of Functional Groups as the Key to Multicomponent Reactions

DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-210-00002

Müller, T. J. J.Science of Synthesis: Multicomponent Reactions, (201415.

General Introduction

Programmed reaction sequences in synthetic chemistry are mimicking cellular chemical processes, which occur in a highly convergent fashion in the confined space of a cell with remarkable selectivity.[‌1‌,‌2‌] All concepts of programmed sequences, whether they are domino or multicomponent reactions, rely on the relative reactivity of functionalities that are generated under a set of selected conditions. First of all, however, a clear definition of multicomponent reactions has to be given. Multicomponent reactions are often associated with a one-pot methodology, which is definitely the first prerequisite that has to be fulfilled.[‌3‌‌5‌] This demands that all transformations occur in the same reaction vessel and without a change of the initially chosen reaction medium. Changes in the polarity of the solvent system can be achieved by addition of a suitable cosolvent or altering the reaction temperature. Secondly, the notion of a multicomponent transformation implies that more than two new bonds are formed from three or more reactants within this one-pot scenario. Thirdly, as a result of a multicomponent reaction, a significant number of atoms from the starting materials are to be found again in the product. This condition renders multicomponent reactions highly atom economical.[‌6‌‌8‌] As a consequence of the one-pot concept, neither intermediate workup nor purification after each reaction step is required, leaving a single purification process after completion of the sequence.

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