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DOI: 10.1055/sos-SD-214-00162

Wever, R.; Babich, L.; Hartog, A. F.Science of Synthesis: Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis, (20151234.

In the past, the major methods for the large-scale production of nucleotides were chemical phosphorylation of the corresponding nucleosides,[‌72‌] direct fermentation to give inosine 5′-monophosphate (1), enzymatic amination of xanthosine 5′-monophosphate, phosphorylation of inosine by a guanosine/inosine kinase using whole cells,[‌73‌] or an enzymatic procedure with inosine kinase from Escherichia coli as a phosphorylating enzyme.[‌74‌] The kinase requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which needs to be regenerated, making the process more complex. Because of this, and the large market for inosine 5′-monophosphate as a flavor enhancer, considerable effort has been put into optimizing the direct enzymatic phosphorylation of nucleosides by pyrophosphate.

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